# Electrical network

A simple electric circuit made up of a voltage source and a resistor. Here, ${\displaystyle V=iR}$, according to Ohm's law.

An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances). An electrical circuit is a network consisting of a closed loop, giving a return path for the current. Linear electrical networks, a special type consisting only of sources (voltage or current), linear lumped elements (resistors, capacitors, inductors), and linear distributed elements (transmission lines), have the property that signals are linearly superimposable. They are thus more easily analyzed, using powerful frequency domain methods such as Laplace transforms, to determine DC response, AC response, and transient response.

A resistive circuit is a circuit containing only resistors and ideal current and voltage sources. Analysis of resistive circuits is less complicated than analysis of circuits containing capacitors and inductors. If the sources are constant (DC) sources, the result is a DC circuit. The effective resistance and current distribution properties of arbitrary resistor networks can be modeled in terms of their graph measures and geometrical properties.[1]

A network that contains active electronic components is known as an electronic circuit. Such networks are generally nonlinear and require more complex design and analysis tools.

## Classification

### By passivity

An active network is a network that contains an active source – either a voltage source or current source.

A passive network is a network that does not contain an active source.

An active network contains one or more sources of electromotive force. It consists of active elements like a battery or a transistor. Active elements can inject power to the circuit, provide power gain, and control the current flow within the circuit.

Passive networks do not contain any sources of electromotive force. They consist of passive elements like resistors and capacitors. These elements are not capable of the same functions as active elements.

### By linearity

A network is linear if its signals obey the principle of superposition; otherwise it is non-linear.

### By lumpiness

Discrete passive components (resistors, capacitors and inductors) are called lumped elements because all of their, respectively, resistance, capacitance and inductance is assumed to be located ("lumped") at one place. This design philosophy is called the lumped element model and networks so designed are called lumped element circuits. This is the conventional approach to circuit design. At high enough frequencies the lumped assumption no longer holds because there is a significant fraction of a wavelength across the component dimensions. A new design model is needed for such cases called the distributed element model. Networks designed to this model are called distributed element circuits.

A distributed element circuit that includes some lumped components is called a semi-lumped design. An example of a semi-lumped circuit is the combline filter.

Other Languages
asturianu: Circuitu
беларуская: Электрычны ланцуг
español: Circuito
Esperanto: Elektra cirkvito
한국어: 전기 회로
Bahasa Indonesia: Rangkaian listrik
Kreyòl ayisyen: Sikui elektrik
magyar: Áramkör
македонски: Струјно коло
Bahasa Melayu: Litar elektrik
Nederlands: Elektrisch netwerk

norsk nynorsk: Elektrisk krins
português: Circuito elétrico
Runa Simi: Pinchikilla muyu
русиньскый: Електрічный обвод
Simple English: Electrical circuit
slovenčina: Elektrický obvod
slovenščina: Električni krog
српски / srpski: Електрична кола
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Električno kolo
suomi: Virtapiiri
Türkmençe: Elektrik Sepi
українська: Електричне коло
Tiếng Việt: Mạch điện