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An electrical network is an interconnection of
A resistive circuit is a circuit containing only resistors and ideal current and voltage sources.
An active network contains one or more sources of
Passive networks do not contain any sources of electromotive force. They consist of passive elements like resistors and capacitors. These elements are not capable of the same functions as active elements.
A network is linear if its signals obey the principle of
Discrete passive components (resistors, capacitors and inductors) are called lumped elements because all of their, respectively, resistance, capacitance and inductance is assumed to be located ("lumped") at one place. This design philosophy is called the
A distributed element circuit that includes some lumped components is called a semi-lumped design. An example of a semi-lumped circuit is the combline filter.