Elbridge Gerry

Elbridge Gerry
5th Vice President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1813 – November 23, 1814
PresidentJames Madison
Preceded byGeorge Clinton
Succeeded byDaniel D. Tompkins
9th Governor of Massachusetts
In office
June 10, 1810 – June 5, 1812
LieutenantWilliam Gray
Preceded byChristopher Gore
Succeeded byCaleb Strong
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 3rd district
In office
March 4, 1789 – March 3, 1793
Preceded byConstituency established
Succeeded byShearjashub Bourne
Peleg Coffin Jr.
Personal details
Elbridge Thomas Gerry

(1744-07-17)July 17, 1744
Marblehead, Massachusetts Bay, British America
DiedNovember 23, 1814(1814-11-23) (aged 70)
Washington, DC, United States
Resting placeCongressional Cemetery
Political partyDemocratic-Republican
Spouse(s)Ann Thompson
EducationHarvard University (BA, MA)
SignatureCursive signature in ink

Elbridge Gerry (i/; July 17, 1744 (O.S. July 6, 1744) – November 23, 1814) was an American politician and diplomat. As a Democratic-Republican he served as the fifth vice president of the United States under President James Madison from March 1813 until his death in November 1814. He is known best for being the eponym of gerrymandering.

Born into a wealthy merchant family, Gerry vocally opposed British colonial policy in the 1760s, and was active in the early stages of organizing the resistance in the American Revolutionary War. Elected to the Second Continental Congress, Gerry signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. He was one of three men who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787 who refused to sign the United States Constitution because it did not then include a Bill of Rights. After its ratification he was elected to the inaugural United States Congress, where he was actively involved in drafting and passage of the Bill of Rights as an advocate of individual and state liberties.

Gerry was at first opposed to the idea of political parties, and cultivated enduring friendships on both sides of the political divide between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. He was a member of a diplomatic delegation to France that was treated poorly in the XYZ Affair, in which Federalists held him responsible for a breakdown in negotiations. Gerry thereafter became a Democratic-Republican, running unsuccessfully for Governor of Massachusetts several times before winning the office in 1810. During his second term, the legislature approved new state senate districts that led to the coining of the word "gerrymander"; he lost the next election, although the state senate remained Democratic-Republican. Chosen by Madison as his vice presidential candidate in 1812, Gerry was elected, but died a year and a half into his term. He is the only signer of the Declaration of Independence who is buried in Washington, DC.

Early life and education

Elbridge Gerry was born on July 17, 1744, in Marblehead, Massachusetts. His father, Thomas Gerry, was a merchant operating ships out of Marblehead, and his mother, Elizabeth (Greenleaf) Gerry, was the daughter of a successful Boston merchant.[1] Gerry's first name came from John Elbridge, one of his mother's ancestors.[2] Gerry's parents had eleven children in all, although only five survived to adulthood. Of these, Elbridge was the third.[3] He was first educated by private tutors, and entered Harvard College shortly before turning fourteen. After receiving a BA in 1762 and an MA in 1765, he entered his father's merchant business. By the 1770s the Gerrys numbered among the wealthiest Massachusetts merchants, with trading connections in Spain, the West Indies, and along the North American coast.[1][4] Gerry's father, who had emigrated from England in 1730, was active in local politics and had a leading role in the local militia.[5]

Other Languages
العربية: إلبردج جيري
asturianu: Elbridge Gerry
azərbaycanca: Elbric Cerri
Bân-lâm-gú: Elbridge Gerry
čeština: Elbridge Gerry
ދިވެހިބަސް: އެލްބްރިޖް ގެރީ
español: Elbridge Gerry
français: Elbridge Gerry
Bahasa Indonesia: Elbridge Gerry
íslenska: Elbridge Gerry
italiano: Elbridge Gerry
ქართული: ელბრიჯ ჯერი
Kiswahili: Elbridge Gerry
lietuvių: Elbridge Gerry
Bahasa Melayu: Elbridge Gerry
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Elbridge Gerry
Nederlands: Elbridge Gerry
português: Elbridge Gerry
română: Elbridge Gerry
Simple English: Elbridge Gerry
српски / srpski: Елбриџ Џери
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Elbridge Gerry
Türkçe: Elbridge Gerry
українська: Елбридж Геррі
Tiếng Việt: Elbridge Gerry
Yorùbá: Elbridge Gerry