Egypt

Arab Republic of Egypt
Anthem:  Bilady, Bilady, Bilady
My country, my country, my country
EGY orthographic.svg
Capital
and largest city
Cairo
30°2′N 31°13′E / 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033; 31.217
Official languages Arabic [a]
National language Egyptian Arabic
Religion
Demonym Egyptian
Government Unitary semi-presidential
republic
•  President
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Sherif Ismail
Legislature House of Representatives
Establishment
• Unification of Upper
and Lower Egypt
[2] [3]
[b]
c. 3150 BC
•  Muhammad Ali dynasty inaugurated
9 July 1805 [4]
28 February 1922
23 July 1952
18 June 1953
18 January 2014
Area
• Total
1,010,407.87 [5] km2 (390,120.66 sq mi) ( 29th)
• Water (%)
0.632
Population
• 2017 estimate
95,871,300 [6] ( 13th)
•  2017 census
94,798,827 [7]
• Density
96/km2 (248.6/sq mi) ( 118th)
GDP ( PPP) 2017 estimate
• Total
$1.173 trillion [8] ( 21st)
• Per capita
$12,560 [8] ( 100th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
• Total
$330.765 billion [9] ( 34th)
• Per capita
$3,740 [9] ( 115th)
Gini (2008) 30.8 [10]
medium
HDI (2014) Increase 0.690 [11]
medium ·  108th
Currency Egyptian pound (E£) ( EGP)
Time zone EET ( UTC+2 [c])
Drives on the right
Calling code +20
ISO 3166 code EG
Internet TLD
  1. ^ Literary Arabic is the sole official language. [12] Egyptian Arabic is the national spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.
  2. "Among the peoples of the ancient Near East, only the Egyptians have stayed where they were and remained what they were, although they have changed their language once and their religion twice. In a sense, they constitute the world's oldest nation". [13] [14] Arthur Goldschmidt Jr.
  3. ^ See Daylight saving time in Egypt.

Egypt ( t/ EE-jipt; Arabic: مِصر‎‎ Miṣr, Egyptian Arabic: مَصر‎‎ Maṣr, Coptic: Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ Kimi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, and across from the Sinai Peninsula lies Saudi Arabia, although Jordan and Saudi Arabia do not share a land border with Egypt.

Egypt emerged as one of the world's first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. [15] Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman, and European. Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was largely Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority.

Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it was granted independence by the British Empire as a monarchy. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt declared itself a republic, and in 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, and occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. In 1980, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords, withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges from terrorism, political unrest, and economic underdevelopment.

With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia), and the fifteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

Egypt is considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, and a middle power worldwide. [16] Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, and is projected to become one of the largest in the 21st century. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Names

The English name Egypt is derived from the Ancient Greek Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος), via Middle French Egypte and Latin Aegyptus. It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as a-ku-pi-ti-yo. The adjective aigýpti-, aigýptios was borrowed into Coptic as gyptios, and from there into Arabic as qubṭī, back formed into قبط qubṭ, whence English Copt. The Greek forms were borrowed from Late Egyptian ( Amarna) Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name
O6 t
pr
D28 Z1 p
t
H
(⟨ḥwt-kȝ-ptḥ⟩), meaning "home of the ka (soul) of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis. [17] Strabo attributed the word to a folk etymology in which Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος) evolved as a compound from Aigaiou huptiōs (Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως), meaning "below the Aegean".

Miṣr (IPA:  [mi̠sˤr] or Egyptian Arabic pronunciation:  [mesˤɾ]; Arabic: مِصر‎‎) is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while Maṣr or Masar (IPA:  [mɑsˤɾ]; Egyptian Arabic: مَصر‎‎) is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. [18] The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם‎ (Mitzráyim). The oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian 𒆳 𒈪 𒄑 𒊒 KURmi-iṣ-ru miṣru, [19] [20] related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". [21]

The ancient Egyptian name of the country was
km m t
O49
km.t, which means black land, likely referring to the fertile black soils of the Nile flood plains, distinct from the deshret (⟨dšṛt⟩), or "red land" of the desert. [22] [23] This name is commonly vocalised as Kemet, but was probably pronounced [kuːmat] in ancient Egyptian. [24] The name is realised as kēme and kēmə in the Coptic stage of the Egyptian language, and appeared in early Greek as Χημία (Khēmía). [25] Another name was ⟨tꜣ-mry⟩ "land of the riverbank". [26] The names of Upper and Lower Egypt were Ta-Sheme'aw (⟨tꜣ-šmꜥw⟩) "sedgeland" and Ta-Mehew (⟨tꜣ mḥw⟩) "northland", respectively.
Other Languages
Acèh: Meusé
адыгабзэ: Мысыр
Afrikaans: Egipte
Akan: Igyipt
Alemannisch: Ägypten
አማርኛ: ግብፅ
Ænglisc: Ægypt
Аҧсшәа: Мысра
العربية: مصر
aragonés: Echipto
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܡܨܪܝܢ
arpetan: Èg·ipte
অসমীয়া: মিছৰ
asturianu: Exiptu
Avañe'ẽ: Ehípto
azərbaycanca: Misir
تۆرکجه: میصر
bamanankan: Misra
বাংলা: মিশর
Bahasa Banjar: Mesir
Bân-lâm-gú: Ai-ki̍p
башҡортса: Мысыр
беларуская: Егіпет
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Эгіпет
भोजपुरी: मिस्र
Bikol Central: Ehipto
български: Египет
Boarisch: Egyptn
བོད་ཡིག: ཨའི་ཅི།
bosanski: Egipat
brezhoneg: Egipt
буряад: Египет
català: Egipte
Cebuano: Ehipto
čeština: Egypt
chiShona: Egypt
chiTumbuka: Egypt
Cymraeg: Yr Aifft
dansk: Egypten
Deutsch: Ägypten
ދިވެހިބަސް: މިޞްރު
dolnoserbski: Egyptojska
eesti: Egiptus
Ελληνικά: Αίγυπτος
español: Egipto
Esperanto: Egiptio
estremeñu: Egitu
euskara: Egipto
eʋegbe: Egipte
فارسی: مصر
Fiji Hindi: Egypt
føroyskt: Egyptaland
français: Égypte
Frysk: Egypte
furlan: Egjit
Gaeilge: An Éigipt
Gaelg: Yn Egypt
Gagauz: Egipet
Gàidhlig: An Èipheit
galego: Exipto
贛語: 埃及
Gĩkũyũ: Egypt
ગુજરાતી: ઇજિપ્ત
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: ईजिप्त
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Âi-khi̍p
한국어: 이집트
Hausa: Misra
Hawaiʻi: ‘Aikupika
Հայերեն: Եգիպտոս
हिन्दी: मिस्र
hornjoserbsce: Egyptowska
hrvatski: Egipat
Ido: Egiptia
Igbo: Egypt
Ilokano: Ehipto
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: মিশর
Bahasa Indonesia: Mesir
interlingua: Egypto
Interlingue: Egiptia
Ирон: Мысыр
isiZulu: IGibhithe
íslenska: Egyptaland
italiano: Egitto
עברית: מצרים
Basa Jawa: Mesir
kalaallisut: Egypt
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಈಜಿಪ್ಟ್
Kapampangan: Ejiptu
ქართული: ეგვიპტე
कॉशुर / کٲشُر: مِسر
kaszëbsczi: Egipt
қазақша: Мысыр
kernowek: Ejyp
Kirundi: Misiri
Kiswahili: Misri
Kongo: Misiri
Kreyòl ayisyen: Ejip
Kurdî: Misir
Кыргызча: Египет
кырык мары: Египет
Ladino: Ayifto
лакку: Мисри
лезги: Мисри
Latina: Aegyptus
latviešu: Ēģipte
Lëtzebuergesch: Egypten
lietuvių: Egiptas
Ligure: Egitto
Limburgs: Egypte
lingála: Ejipte
Livvinkarjala: Jegiptu
la .lojban.: misrygu'e
Luganda: Egypt
lumbaart: Egit
magyar: Egyiptom
मैथिली: मिस्र
македонски: Египет
Malagasy: Ejipta
മലയാളം: ഈജിപ്റ്റ്‌
Malti: Eġittu
मराठी: इजिप्त
მარგალური: ეგვიპტე
مصرى: مصر
مازِرونی: مصر
Bahasa Melayu: Mesir
Baso Minangkabau: Masia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ăi-gĭk
мокшень: Египет
монгол: Египет
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အီဂျစ်နိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Egipto
Dorerin Naoero: Idjipt
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Ijipta
Nederlands: Egypte (land)
Nedersaksies: Egypte (laand)
नेपाली: मिश्र
नेपाल भाषा: मिस्र
日本語: エジプト
Napulitano: Naggitto
нохчийн: Мисар
Nordfriisk: Egypten
Norfuk / Pitkern: Ejiipt
norsk: Egypt
norsk nynorsk: Egypt
Nouormand: Êgypte
Novial: Egiptia
occitan: Egipte
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଇଜିପ୍ଟ
Oromoo: Ijiipti
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Misr
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਿਸਰ
पालि: ईजिप्ट
پنجابی: مصر
Papiamentu: Egipto
پښتو: مصر
Patois: Iijip
ភាសាខ្មែរ: អេហ៊្សីប
Picard: Édjipe
Piemontèis: Egit
Tok Pisin: Ijip
Plattdüütsch: Ägypten
polski: Egipt
Ποντιακά: Αίγυπτος
português: Egito
Qaraqalpaqsha: Mısır
qırımtatarca: Mısır
reo tahiti: ’Aifiti
română: Egipt
Romani: Mêsire
rumantsch: Egipta
Runa Simi: Ihiptu
русиньскый: Еґіпет
русский: Египет
саха тыла: Эгиипэт
sámegiella: Egypta
Gagana Samoa: Aikupito
संस्कृतम्: ईजिप्तदेशः
Sängö: Kâmitâ
sardu: Egitu
Scots: Egyp
Seeltersk: Ägypten
Sesotho: Egepeta
Sesotho sa Leboa: Egypt
shqip: Egjipti
sicilianu: Eggittu
සිංහල: ඊජිප්තුව
Simple English: Egypt
سنڌي: مصر
SiSwati: IGibhithe
slovenčina: Egypt
slovenščina: Egipt
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Єгѷптъ
ślůnski: Egipt
Soomaaliga: Masar
کوردی: میسر
Sranantongo: Egiptakondre
српски / srpski: Египат
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Egipat
Basa Sunda: Mesir
suomi: Egypti
svenska: Egypten
Tagalog: Ehipto
தமிழ்: எகிப்து
Taqbaylit: Maṣer
tarandíne: Egitte
татарча/tatarça: Мисыр
తెలుగు: ఈజిప్టు
tetun: Ejitu
тоҷикӣ: Миср
ᏣᎳᎩ: ᎢᏥᏈᎢ
Tsetsêhestâhese: Egypt
Türkçe: Mısır
Türkmençe: Müsür
Twi: Egypt
тыва дыл: Египет
удмурт: Египет
ᨅᨔ ᨕᨘᨁᨗ: Mesir
українська: Єгипет
اردو: مصر
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: مىسىر
Vahcuengh: Aehciz
vèneto: Egito
vepsän kel’: Egipt
Tiếng Việt: Ai Cập
Volapük: Lägüptän
Võro: Egüptüs
walon: Edjipe
文言: 密思兒
West-Vlams: Egypte
Winaray: Ehipto
Wolof: Isipt
吴语: 埃及
Xitsonga: Gibita
ייִדיש: עגיפטן
Yorùbá: Ẹ́gíptì
粵語: 埃及
Zazaki: Mısır
Zeêuws: Ehypte
žemaitėška: Egėpts
中文: 埃及
डोटेली: इजिप्ट
Kabɩyɛ: Egipiti