For most of his career Edward Chamberlin taught economics at Harvard (1937–1967). He made significant contributions to microeconomics, particularly on competition theory and consumer choice, and their connection to prices. Edward Chamberlin coined the term "
product differentiation" to describe how a supplier may be able to charge a greater amount for a product than
perfect competition would allow. In 1962 was admitted as corresponding academician to the RACEF.
His most significant contribution was the
Chamberlinian monopolistic competition theory. Chamberlin published his book
The Theory of Monopolistic Competition in 1933, the same year that
Joan Robinson published her book on the same topic: The Economics of Imperfect Competition, so these two economists can be regarded as the parents of the modern study of imperfect competition. Chamberlain's book is often compared to Robinson's book The Economics of Imperfect Competition, in which Robinson coined the term "
monopsony," which is used to describe the buyer converse of a seller monopoly. Monopsony is commonly applied to buyers of labour, where the employer has wage setting power that allows it to exercise Pigouvian exploitation
 and pay workers less than their marginal productivity. Robinson used monopsony to describe the wage gap between women and men workers of equal productivity.
Chamberlain is also considered one of the first theorists who applied the marginal revenue idea, which is implicit on Cournot´s monopoly theory in the late 1920´s and early 1930´s.
 Chamberlin is thought to have conducted "not only the first market experiment, but also the first
economic experiment of any kind," with experiments he used in the classroom to illustrate how prices don't necessarily reach equilibrium.
 Chamberlin concludes that most market prices are determined by monopolistic and competitive aspects.
Chamberlin's theory of monopolistic competition is used by
Harrison White in his "markets from networks" model of market structure and competition.
The works of Chamberlin, Robinson, and other contributors to the
Structure-Conduct-Performance Paradigm were heavily discounted by game theorists in the 1960s, but Nobel-Prize winner
Paul Krugman and others built the foundations of the
New Theory of International Trade by combining such theories of industrial structure with production functions that assumed significant
economies of scale and scope.