Easter

Easter
Resurrection (24).jpg
Icon of the Resurrection, with Christ having kicked down the gates of Hades and pulling Adam and Eve out of the tombs. Christ is flanked by saints, and Satan—depicted as an old man—is bound and chained. (See Resurrection of Jesus in Christian art.)
TypeChristian, cultural
SignificanceCelebrates the resurrection of Jesus
CelebrationsChurch services, festive family meals, Easter egg decoration, and gift-giving
ObservancesPrayer, all-night vigil, sunrise service
Datevariable, variable, date of Easter
2017 date16 April (Western)
16 April (Eastern)
2018 date1 April (Western)
8 April (Eastern)
2019 date21 April (Western)
28 April (Eastern)
2020 date12 April (Western)
19 April (Eastern)
Related toPassover, of which it is regarded the Christian fulfillment; Septuagesima, Sexagesima, Quinquagesima, Shrove Tuesday, Ash Wednesday, Clean Monday, Lent, Great Lent, Palm Sunday, Holy Week, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and Holy Saturday which lead up to Easter; and Thomas Sunday, Ascension, Pentecost, Trinity Sunday, and Corpus Christi which follow it.

Easter,[nb 1] also called Pascha (Greek, Latin)[nb 2] or Resurrection Sunday,[3][4] is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD.[5][6] It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus, preceded by Lent (or Great Lent), a forty-day period of fasting, prayer, and penance.

Most Christians refer to the week before Easter as "Holy Week"—it contains the days of the Easter Triduum, including Maundy Thursday, commemorating the Maundy and Last Supper,[7][8] as well as Good Friday, commemorating the crucifixion and death of Jesus.[9] In Western Christianity, Eastertide, or the Easter Season, begins on Easter Sunday and lasts seven weeks, ending with the coming of the fiftieth day, Pentecost Sunday. In Eastern Christianity, the season of Pascha begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the fortieth day, the Feast of the Ascension.

Easter and the holidays that are related to it are moveable feasts which do not fall on a fixed date in the Gregorian or Julian calendars which follow only the cycle of the sun; rather, its date is determined on a lunisolar calendar similar to the Hebrew calendar. The First Council of Nicaea (325) established two rules, independence of the Jewish calendar and worldwide uniformity, which were the only rules for Easter explicitly laid down by the council. No details for the computation were specified; these were worked out in practice, a process that took centuries and generated a number of controversies. It has come to be the first Sunday after the ecclesiastical full moon that occurs on or soonest after 21 March,[10] but calculations vary.

Easter is linked to the Jewish Passover by much of its symbolism, as well as by its position in the calendar. In most European languages the feast called Easter in English is termed by the words for passover in those languages and in the older English versions of the Bible the term Easter was the term used to translate passover.[11] Easter customs vary across the Christian world, and include sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church,[12] and decorating Easter eggs (symbols of the empty tomb).[13][14][15] The Easter lily, a symbol of the resurrection,[16][17] traditionally decorates the chancel area of churches on this day and for the rest of Eastertide.[18] Additional customs that have become associated with Easter and are observed by both Christians and some non-Christians include egg hunting, the Easter Bunny, and Easter parades.[19][20][21] There are also various traditional Easter foods that vary regionally.

Etymology

The modern English term Easter, cognate with modern Dutch ooster and German Ostern, developed from an Old English word that usually appears in the form Ēastrun, -on, or -an; but also as Ēastru, -o; and Ēastre or Ēostre.[nb 3] The most widely accepted theory of the origin of the term is that it is derived from the name of an Old English goddess mentioned by the 7th to 8th-century English monk Bede, who wrote that Ēosturmōnaþ (Old English 'Month of Ēostre', translated in Bede's time as "Paschal month") was an English month, corresponding to April, which he says "was once called after a goddess of theirs named Ēostre, in whose honour feasts were celebrated in that month".[22]

In Latin and Greek, the Christian celebration was, and still is, called Pascha (Greek: Πάσχα), a word derived from Aramaic פסחא (Paskha), cognate to Hebrew פֶּסַח (Pesach). The word originally denoted the Jewish festival known in English as Passover, commemorating the Jewish Exodus from slavery in Egypt.[23][24] As early as the 50s of the 1st century, Paul, writing from Ephesus to the Christians in Corinth,[25] applied the term to Christ, and it is unlikely that the Ephesian and Corinthian Christians were the first to hear Exodus 12 interpreted as speaking about the death of Jesus, not just about the Jewish Passover ritual.[26] In most of the non-English speaking world, the feast is known by names derived from Greek and Latin Pascha.[2][27] Pascha is also a name by which Jesus himself is remembered in the Orthodox Church, especially in connection with his resurrection and with the season of its celebration.[28]

Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: ӀутӀыж
Afrikaans: Paasfees
Alemannisch: Ostern
አማርኛ: ፋሲካ
Ænglisc: Ēaster
العربية: عيد القيامة
armãneashti: Paști
asturianu: Pascua
azərbaycanca: Pasxa
বাংলা: ইস্টার
Bân-lâm-gú: Koh-oa̍h-cheh
башҡортса: Пасха
беларуская: Вялікдзень
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Вялікдзень
Bikol Central: Pasko nin Pagkabuhay
български: Великден
Boarisch: Ostan
bosanski: Uskrs
brezhoneg: Pask
Чӑвашла: Mункун
Cebuano: Pagkabanhaw
čeština: Velikonoce
corsu: Pasqua
Cymraeg: Pasg
dansk: Påske
davvisámegiella: Beassážat
Deitsch: Oschder
Deutsch: Ostern
Ελληνικά: Πάσχα
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Pasqua
español: Pascua
Esperanto: Pasko
euskara: Pazkoa
فارسی: عید پاک
føroyskt: Páskir
français: Pâques
Frysk: Peaske
Gaeilge: Cáisc
Gaelg: Yn Chaisht
Gagauz: Paskellä
Gàidhlig: A' Chàisg
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: Kristachea Jivontponnachem Fest - Easter
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Fu̍k-fa̍t-chiet
한국어: 부활절
Հայերեն: Զատիկ
हिन्दी: ईस्टर
hornjoserbsce: Jutry
hrvatski: Uskrs
Ido: Pasko
Bahasa Indonesia: Paskah
Interlingue: Pasca
Ирон: Куадзæн
isiZulu: IPhasika
íslenska: Páskar
italiano: Pasqua
עברית: פסחא
Basa Jawa: Paskah
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಈಸ್ಟರ್
ქართული: აღდგომა
kaszëbsczi: Jastrë
қазақша: Пасха
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pak (fèt)
кырык мары: Когечӹ
لۊری شومالی: عئید پاک
latgaļu: Leldīne
latviešu: Lieldienas
Lëtzebuergesch: Ouschteren
lietuvių: Velykos
Limburgs: Paosje
lingála: Pásika
Livvinkarjala: Äijypäivy
lumbaart: Pasqua
magyar: Húsvét
македонски: Велигден
Malagasy: Paska
മലയാളം: ഈസ്റ്റർ
मराठी: ईस्टर
მარგალური: თანაფა
Bahasa Melayu: Hari Easter
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Bô-uăk-cáik
мокшень: Очижи
မြန်မာဘာသာ: အီစတာပွဲတော်နေ့
Nāhuatl: Paxcua
Nederlands: Pasen
Nedersaksies: Poaske
日本語: 復活祭
Napulitano: Pasca crestiana
Nordfriisk: Puask
norsk: Påske
norsk nynorsk: Påske
Nouormand: Pâques
occitan: Pascas
олык марий: Кугече
Pälzisch: Ostern
Перем Коми: Ыджытлун
Plattdüütsch: Oostern
polski: Wielkanoc
português: Páscoa
Ripoarisch: Ostere
română: Paști
rumantsch: Pasca
Runa Simi: Paskwa
русиньскый: Великдень
русский: Пасха
Gagana Samoa: Motu o Eseta
sardu: Pasca
Scots: Pace
shqip: Pashkët
sicilianu: Pasqua
Simple English: Easter
slovenčina: Veľká noc
slovenščina: Velika noč
ślůnski: Wjelgonoc
српски / srpski: Ускрс
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Uskrs
svenska: Påsk
татарча/tatarça: Олы көн бәйрәме
తెలుగు: ఈస్టర్
Türkçe: Paskalya
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Aköljonbɛ̈nyrɔt
українська: Великдень
اردو: ایسٹر
vepsän kel’: Äipäiv
Tiếng Việt: Lễ Phục Sinh
walon: Påke
West-Vlams: Poaschn
吴语: 复活节
粵語: 復活節
Zazaki: Pasxalya
Zeêuws: Paese
žemaitėška: Velīkas
中文: 復活節