Earwig

Earwigs
Temporal range: 208–0 Ma Late Triassic to Recent
Earwig on white background.jpg
Female common earwig, Forficula auricularia
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Arthropoda
Class:Insecta
Order:Dermaptera
De Geer, 1773
Suborders
Synonyms
  • Euplecoptera
  • Euplexoptera
  • Forficulida

Earwigs make up the insect order Dermaptera. With about 2,000 species[1] in 12 families, they are one of the smaller insect orders. Earwigs have characteristic cerci, a pair of forceps-like pincers on their abdomen, and membranous wings folded underneath short, rarely used forewings, hence the scientific order name, "skin wings". Some groups are tiny parasites on mammals and lack the typical pincers. Earwigs are found on all continents except Antarctica.

Earwigs are mostly nocturnal and often hide in small, moist crevices during the day, and are active at night, feeding on a wide variety of insects and plants. Damage to foliage, flowers, and various crops is commonly blamed on earwigs, especially the common earwig Forficula auricularia.

Earwigs have five molts in the year before they become adults. Many earwig species display maternal care, which is uncommon among insects. Female earwigs may care for their eggs, and even after they have hatched as nymphs will continue to watch over offspring until their second molt. As the nymphs molt, sexual dimorphism such as differences in pincer shapes begins to show.

Some earwig specimen fossils are in the extinct suborders Archidermaptera or Eodermaptera, the former dating to the Late Triassic and the latter to the Middle Jurassic. Many orders of insect have been theorized to be closely related to earwigs, though the icebugs of Grylloblattaria are most likely.

Etymology

Earwig diagram with wings extended and closed

The scientific name for the order, "Dermaptera", is Greek in origin, stemming from the words derma, meaning skin, and pteron (plural ptera), wing. It was coined by Charles De Geer in 1773. The common term, earwig, is derived from the Old English ēare, which means "ear", and wicga, which means "insect", or literally, "beetle".[2] Entomologists suggest that the origin of the name is a reference to the appearance of the hindwings, which are unique and distinctive among insects, and resemble a human ear when unfolded.[3][4] The name is more popularly thought to be related to the old wives' tale that earwigs burrowed into the brains of humans through the ear and laid their eggs there.[5] Earwigs are not known to purposefully climb into ear canals, but there have been anecdotal reports of earwigs being found in the ear.[6]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Oorkruipers
Alemannisch: Ohrwürmer
العربية: أبو مقص (حشرة)
asturianu: Dermaptera
azərbaycanca: Dermaptera
башҡортса: Айырығойроҡтар
беларуская: Скурыстакрылыя
български: Кожестокрили
Boarisch: Oanschloifa
català: Dermàpters
Cebuano: Sipit
čeština: Škvoři
Deutsch: Ohrwürmer
Ελληνικά: Δερμάπτερα
español: Dermaptera
Esperanto: Forfikuloj
euskara: Dermaptera
فارسی: گوش‌خیزک
français: Dermaptera
Gaeilge: Gailseach
galego: Dermápteros
한국어: 집게벌레목
hrvatski: Uholaže
Bahasa Indonesia: Dermaptera
interlingua: Dermaptera
íslenska: Klaufhalar
italiano: Dermaptera
עברית: צבתנאים
Kiswahili: Mdudu-koleo
Кыргызча: Кыпчуур
кырык мары: Важынкапшангы
Latina: Dermaptera
latviešu: Spīļastes
lietuvių: Auslindos
Bahasa Melayu: Lelawi
Nederlands: Oorwormen
Nedersaksies: Gaffeltaand
日本語: ハサミムシ
Nordfriisk: Uarklöögern
norsk: Saksedyr
norsk nynorsk: Saksedyr
Plattdüütsch: Ohrenkniepers
polski: Skorki
português: Dermaptera
Simple English: Earwig
slovenščina: Strigalice
српски / srpski: Ухолаже
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Uholaže
Basa Sunda: Cocopét
svenska: Tvestjärtar
Tagalog: Dermaptera
lea faka-Tonga: Mokohula
українська: Вуховертки
West-Vlams: Ôornbêestn
Winaray: Dermaptera
中文: 蠼螋