Earth science

Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. It is the branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Earth science is the study of our planet’s physical characteristics, from earthquakes to raindrops, and floods to fossils. Earth science can be considered to be a branch of planetary science, but with a much older history. “Earth science” encompasses four main branches of study, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, and the biosphere, each of which is further broken down into more specialized fields.

There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences. It is also the study of the Earth and its neighbors in space. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the Earth to locate and develop energy and mineral resources. Others study the impact of human activity on Earth's environment, and design methods to protect the planet. Some use their knowledge about Earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events.

The Earth sciences can include the study of geology, the lithosphere, and the large-scale structure of the Earth's interior, as well as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Typically, Earth scientists use tools from geography, chronology, physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth works and evolves. Earth science affects our everyday lives. For example, meteorologists study the weather and watch for dangerous storms. Hydrologists study water and warn of floods. Seismologists study earthquakes and try to predict where they will strike. Geologists study rocks and help to locate useful minerals. Earth scientists mainly work “in the field”—climbing mountains, exploring the seabed, crawling through caves, or wading in swamps. They measure and collect samples (such as rocks or river water), then they record their findings on charts and maps.

Fields of study

The following fields of science are generally categorized within the Earth sciences:

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Aardrykskunde
العربية: علوم الأرض
azərbaycanca: Yer haqqında elmlər
Bân-lâm-gú: Tē-kiû kho-ha̍k
беларуская: Навукі аб Зямлі
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Навукі пра Зямлю
български: Науки за Земята
čeština: Vědy o Zemi
davvisámegiella: Kategoriija:Geodiehtagat
ދިވެހިބަސް: ބިމުގެ އިލްމު
eesti: Maateadus
Ελληνικά: Γεωεπιστήμες
Esperanto: Terscienco
فارسی: علوم زمین
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thi-khiù Khô-ho̍k
한국어: 지구과학
हिन्दी: भौमिकी
hrvatski: Geoznanosti
Bahasa Indonesia: Ilmu kebumian
interlingua: Scientias del terra
íslenska: Jarðvísindi
Basa Jawa: Èlmu bumi
Kiswahili: Sayansi za dunia
latviešu: Zemes zinātne
Lëtzebuergesch: Geowëssenschaften
Limburgs: Aerdweitesjappe
la .lojban.: tedyske
македонски: Науки за Земјата
Bahasa Melayu: Sains bumi
Baso Minangkabau: Ilmu bumi
Nederlands: Aardwetenschappen
Nedersaksies: Eerdwetenschoppen
日本語: 地球科学
norsk nynorsk: Geofag
Patois: Oert sayans
Plattdüütsch: Eerdwetenschoppen
português: Ciências da terra
русский: Науки о Земле
саха тыла: Сир үөрэхтэрэ
Simple English: Earth science
slovenčina: Vedy o Zemi
slovenščina: Vede o Zemlji
српски / srpski: Науке о Земљи
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Nauke o Zemlji
Basa Sunda: Élmu bumi
suomi: Geotieteet
svenska: Geovetenskap
Türkçe: Yer bilimleri
українська: Науки про Землю
اردو: زمینیات
Tiếng Việt: Khoa học Trái Đất
吴语: 地球科學
粵語: 地球科學
žemaitėška: Muokslos api Žemė
中文: 地球科学