Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era. Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the post-classical age (c. 1500), known as the Middle Ages, through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions (c. 1800) and is variously demarcated by historians as beginning with the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, with the Renaissance period in Europe, the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, and with the Age of Discovery (especially with the voyages of Christopher Columbus beginning in 1492, but also with Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India in 1498), and ending around the French Revolution in 1789.

Historians in recent decades have argued that from a worldwide standpoint, the most important feature of the early modern period was its globalizing character.[1] The period witnessed the exploration and colonization of the Americas and the rise of sustained contacts between previously isolated parts of the globe. The historical powers became involved in global trade, as the exchange of goods, plants, animals, food crops, and slaves extended to the Old World and the New World. The Columbian Exchange greatly affected the human environment.

New economies and institutions emerged, becoming more sophisticated and globally articulated over the course of the early modern period. This process began in the medieval North Italian city-states, particularly Genoa, Venice, and Milan in the west, and in India's Bengal in the east. The early modern period also included the rise of the dominance of the economic theory of mercantilism. The European colonization of the Americas, Asia, and Africa occurred during the 15th to 19th centuries, and spread Christianity around the world.

In the Islamic world, the Ghurid dynasty, Delhi Sultanate, Ottoman, Suri, Safavid and Mughal empires grew in strength. Particularly in the Indian subcontinent, Mughal architecture, culture and art reached their zenith, while the empire itself is believed to have had the world's largest economy, bigger than the entirety of Western Europe and worth 25% of global GDP,[2] signalling the period of proto-industrialization.[3]

By the 16th century Asian economies under the Ming dynasty and Mughal Bengal were stimulated by trade with the Portuguese, the Spanish, and the Dutch, while Japan engaged in the Nanban trade after the arrival of the first European Portuguese during the Azuchi–Momoyama period.

The early modern trends in various regions of the world represented a shift away from medieval modes of organization, politically and economically. Feudalism declined in Europe, while the period also included the Protestant Reformation, the disastrous Thirty Years' War, the Commercial Revolution, the European colonization of the Americas, and the Golden Age of Piracy.

Other notable trends of the early modern period include the development of experimental science, accelerated travel due to improvements in mapping and ship design, increasingly rapid technological progress, secularized civic politics, and the emergence of nation states. Historians typically date the end of the early modern period when the French Revolution of the 1790s began the "late modern" period.[4]

Other Languages
aragonés: Edat Moderna
asturianu: Edá Moderna
беларуская: Ранні Новы час
Boarisch: Friae Neizeid
brezhoneg: Amzerioù modern
català: Edat moderna
Чӑвашла: Çĕнĕ Самана
čeština: Raný novověk
eesti: Varauusaeg
español: Edad Moderna
euskara: Aro Modernoa
français: Époque moderne
한국어: 근세
Bahasa Indonesia: Periode modern awal
italiano: Storia moderna
latviešu: Jaunie laiki
Lëtzebuergesch: Neizäit
lietuvių: Naujieji laikai
Lingua Franca Nova: Eda moderna
lumbaart: Età Modèrna
magyar: Korai újkor
македонски: Ран нов век
Malagasy: Andro Vaovao
Nederlands: Vroegmoderne Tijd
日本語: 近世
occitan: Edat Modèrna
português: Idade Moderna
Simple English: Early modern period
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rani novi vijek
татарча/tatarça: Яңа вакыт
Tiếng Việt: Thời kỳ cận đại
West-Vlams: Nieuwn tyd
ייִדיש: נייע צייט
中文: 近世