Ancient Near East
The Epic of Gilgamesh was written over generations following the supposed reign of King Gilgamesh, and is seen as a mythologized version of his life. This figure is sometimes an influence and, more rarely, a figure in modern fantasy. Some scholars believe The Epic of Gilgamesh is a source used by the authors of the Bible, specifically the story of Noah and the flood. The magic part of fantasy is partly due to the Mesopotamian world: the use of "magical words" that have the power to command the spirits; to resort to a magical circle to defend the wizard against the spirits invoked; the use of mysterious symbols or seals to invoke spirits; the use of amulets that represent the image of the demon to exorcise it.