Dutch language

For other uses of "Dutch", see Dutch (disambiguation).
Dutch
Nederlands
Pronunciation[ˈneːdərlɑnts] (About this sound listen)
Native toNetherlands and Flanders
RegionNetherlands, Belgium, and Suriname;
also in Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten, French Flanders
EthnicityDutch people
Flemish people
Native speakers
22 million (2018)[1]
Total (L1 plus L2 speakers): 28 million (2018)[2][3]
Early forms
Latin (Dutch alphabet)
Dutch Braille
Signed Dutch (NmG)
Official status
Official language in

 Aruba
 Belgium
 Curaçao
 Netherlands
 Sint Maarten
 Suriname


Benelux
European Union
Union of South American Nations South American Union
Caribbean Community Caricom
Regulated byNederlandse Taalunie
(Dutch Language Union)
Language codes
ISO 639-1nl
ISO 639-2dut (B)
nld (T)
ISO 639-3nld Dutch/Flemish
Glottologmode1257[4]
Linguasphere52-ACB-a
Map Dutch World scris.png
Dutch-speaking world (included are areas of daughter-language Afrikaans)
Idioma neerlandés.PNG
Distribution of the Dutch language and its dialects in Western Europe
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The Dutch language (About this sound Nederlands ) is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 22 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.[2][3][5][6] It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after English and German.

Outside the Low Countries, it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname where it also holds an official status, as it does in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located in the Caribbean. Historical minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France[7] and Germany, and in Indonesia,[n 1] while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States, Canada and Australia combined.[n 2] The Cape Dutch dialects of Southern Africa have evolved into Afrikaans, a mutually intelligible daughter language[n 3] which is spoken to some degree by at least 16 million people, mainly in South Africa and Namibia.[n 4]

Dutch is one of the closest relatives of both German and English[n 5] and is colloquially said to be "roughly in between" them.[n 6] Dutch, like English, has not undergone the High German consonant shift, does not use Germanic umlaut as a grammatical marker, has largely abandoned the use of the subjunctive, and has levelled much of its morphology, including most of its case system.[n 7] Features shared with German include the survival of two to three grammatical genders—albeit with few grammatical consequences[n 8]—as well as the use of modal particles,[8] final-obstruent devoicing, and a similar word order.[n 9] Dutch vocabulary is mostly Germanic and incorporates slightly more Romance loans than German but far fewer than English.[n 10]

Name

In both Belgium and the Netherlands, the native official name for Dutch is Nederlands.[9][10] Sometimes Vlaams ("Flemish") is used as well to describe Standard Dutch in Flanders.[11] Over time, the Dutch language has been known under a variety of names. In Middle Dutch Dietsc, Duutsc or Duitsc was used.[12] It derived from the Old Germanic word theudisk, which literarily means "popular" or "belonging to the populace". In Western Europe this term was used for the language of the local Germanic populace as opposed to Latin, the non-native language of writing and the Catholic Church.[13] In the first text in which it is found, dating from 784, theodisce refers to Anglo-Saxon, the West Germanic dialects of Britain.[14][15] Although in Britain the name Englisc replaced theodisce on an early age, speakers of West Germanic in other parts of Europe kept on using it as a reference to their local speech. With the rise of local powers in the Low Countries during the Middle Ages, language names derived from these local polities came in use as well i.e.Vlaemsch, Hollandsch and Brabantsch. The more powerful the local polity, the wider the use of its name for the language became.[16] These names still survive in the corresponding dialect groups spoken today.[17][18]

Owing to commercial and colonial rivalry in the 16th and 17th centuries between England and the Low Countries, a cognate of theodisk (most likely Middle Dutch Duutsc) was borrowed into English and developed into the exonym Dutch, which came to refer exclusively to the people of the Netherlands. (A usage of the English term Dutch that includes German survives in the United States in the name Pennsylvania Dutch for a local German dialect and its speakers, commonly believed to be a corruption of their endonym Deitsch.) In the Low Countries on the contrary, Dietsch or Duytsch as endonym for Dutch went out of common use and had been gradually replaced by the Dutch endonym Nederlands. This designation started at the Burgundian court in the 15th century, although the use of neder, laag, bas and inferior ("nether" or "low") to refer to the area known as the Low Counties, goes back further in time. Earlier the Romans have been referring to the region as Germania Inferior ("Lower" Germania).[19][20][21] It is a reference to the Low Countries' downriver location at the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta near the North Sea.

The designation Nederlands received since 1551 strong competition from the name Nederduits ("Low Dutch;" Dutch is used here in its archaic sense that covers all continental West Germanic languages). It is a calque of the before mentioned Roman province Germania Inferior and an attempt by early Dutch grammarians to give their language more prestige by linking it to Roman times. Likewise, Hoogduits ("High Dutch") came into use as Dutch exonym for the German language, spoken in neighboring German states.[16] However, 19th century Germany saw the rise of the categorisation of dialects, and German dialectologists termed the German dialects spoken in the mountainous south of Germany as Hochdeutsch ("High German"). Subsequently, German dialects spoken in the north were designated as Niederdeutsch ("Low German"). The names for these dialects were calqued in the Dutch language area as the exonyms Nederduits and Hoogduits. By doing so, Nederduits did no longer serve as a synonym for the Dutch language, and Nederlands prevailed as sole Dutch endonym. It also meant that Hoog ("High") had to be dropped in one of the two meanings of Hoogduits, leading to the narrowing down of Duits as Dutch exonym for the German language, and Hoogduits as reference for southern German dialects.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Nederlands
አማርኛ: ሆላንድኛ
العربية: لغة هولندية
arpetan: Nêrlandês
Avañe'ẽ: Neelándañe'ẽ
azərbaycanca: Niderland dili
تۆرکجه: هولند دیلی
Bân-lâm-gú: Hô-lân-gí
Basa Banyumasan: Basa Landa
башҡортса: Нидерланд теле
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Нідэрляндзкая мова
bosanski: Holandski jezik
brezhoneg: Nederlandeg
català: Neerlandès
Cebuano: Inolandes
čeština: Nizozemština
Cymraeg: Iseldireg
davvisámegiella: Hollánddagiella
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޑަޗު
dolnoserbski: Nižozemšćina
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Ulandais
euskara: Nederlandera
Fiji Hindi: Dutch bhasa
français: Néerlandais
Gaeilge: An Ollainnis
Gaelg: Ollanish
Gàidhlig: Duitsis
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Hò-làn-ngî
한국어: 네덜란드어
Հայերեն: Հոլանդերեն
हिन्दी: डच भाषा
hornjoserbsce: Nižozemšćina
Bahasa Indonesia: Bahasa Belanda
interlingua: Lingua nederlandese
isiXhosa: IsiHolani
isiZulu: IsiHolandi
íslenska: Hollenska
italiano: Lingua olandese
עברית: הולנדית
Basa Jawa: Basa Walanda
kernowek: Iseldiryek
Kiswahili: Kiholanzi
Lëtzebuergesch: Hollännesch
lietuvių: Olandų kalba
Limburgs: Nederlands
lingála: Lifalamá
lumbaart: Lengua ulandesa
македонски: Холандски јазик
മലയാളം: ഡച്ച് ഭാഷ
मराठी: डच भाषा
მარგალური: ჰოლანდიური ნინა
مصرى: هولندى
Bahasa Melayu: Bahasa Belanda
Baso Minangkabau: Bahaso Balando
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Hò̤-làng-ngṳ̄
Nederlands: Nederlands
Nedersaksies: Nederlaands
नेपाल भाषा: डच भाषा
日本語: オランダ語
Nordfriisk: Neederluns/öö
norsk nynorsk: Nederlandsk
Novial: Nederlandum
occitan: Neerlandés
олык марий: Нидерланд йылме
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Niderland tili
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਡੱਚ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ
Pälzisch: Niederländisch
پنجابی: ڈچ
Papiamentu: Hulandes
Patois: Doch
Перем Коми: Недерландісь кыв
Picard: Nirlindé
Piemontèis: Lenga neerlandèisa
Plattdüütsch: Nedderlandsche Spraak
qırımtatarca: Felemenk tili
Runa Simi: Urasuyu simi
саха тыла: Нидерлаан тыла
Gagana Samoa: Fa'aholani
संस्कृतम्: डच भाषा
Scots: Dutch leid
Sesotho: Se-dutch
Sesotho sa Leboa: Sedutch
Setswana: Se-dutch
sicilianu: Lingua ulannisa
Simple English: Dutch language
slovenčina: Holandčina
slovenščina: Nizozemščina
Soomaaliga: Af-Holandees
Sranantongo: Bakratongo
српски / srpski: Холандски језик
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Holandski jezik
Basa Sunda: Basa Walanda
svenska: Nederländska
татарча/tatarça: Нидерланд теле
తెలుగు: డచ్ భాష
Türkçe: Felemenkçe
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: گوللاندىيە تىلى
vepsän kel’: Alaman kel'
Tiếng Việt: Tiếng Hà Lan
Volapük: Nedänapük
West-Vlams: Nederlands
Winaray: Inolandes
吴语: 荷蘭語
ייִדיש: האלענדיש
粵語: 荷蘭文
Zazaki: Flemenki
Zeêuws: Nederlands
中文: 荷蘭語
Lingua Franca Nova: Nederlandes