Dubrovnik

Dubrovnik
Grad Dubrovnik
City of Dubrovnik
Top: old city of Dubrovnik, Second left: Sponza Palace, Second right: Rector's Palace, Third left: city walls, Third right: Dubrovnik Cathedral, Bottom: Stradun, the city's main street
Top: old city of Dubrovnik, Second left: Sponza Palace, Second right: Rector's Palace, Third left: city walls, Third right: Dubrovnik Cathedral, Bottom: Stradun, the city's main street
Flag of Dubrovnik
Flag
Coat of arms of Dubrovnik
Coat of arms
Nicknames: 
"Croatian Athens", "Pearl of the Adriatic", "Thesaurum mundi"
Dubrovnik is located in Croatia
Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
The location of Dubrovnik within Croatia
Coordinates: 42°38′25″N 18°06′30″E / 42°38′25″N 18°06′30″E / 42.64028; 18.10833Croatia
CountyDubrovnik-Neretva
Government
 • TypeMayor-Council
 • MayorMato Franković (HDZ)
 • City Council
Area
 • City21.35 km2 (8.24 sq mi)
Elevation
3 m (10 ft)
Population
(2016)[1]
 • City43,950
 • Density2,100/km2 (5,300/sq mi)
 • Urban
28,434
 • Metro
65,808
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
HR-20 000
Area code(s)+385 20
Vehicle registrationwww.dubrovnik.hr
Stradun, Dubrovnik's main street
The Old Town from above
View of the old city

Dubrovnik (Croatian: [dǔbroːʋniːk] (About this soundlisten);[2] historically Latin: Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean Sea, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva County. Its total population is 42,615 (census 2011). In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage sites.

The prosperity of the city was historically based on maritime trade; as the capital of the maritime Republic of Ragusa, it achieved a high level of development, particularly during the 15th and 16th centuries, as it became notable for its wealth and skilled diplomacy.

In 1991, after the break-up of Yugoslavia, Dubrovnik was besieged by Serbian and Montenegrin soldiers of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) for seven months and suffered significant damage from shelling.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] After repair and restoration works in the 1990s and early 2000s, Dubrovnik re-emerged as one of the top tourist destinations in the Mediterranean.[12][13][14][15] By 2018 however, the city had to take steps to reduce the excessive number of tourists, especially in the Old Town. One method to moderate the overcrowding was to stagger the arrival/departure times of cruise ships to spread the number of visitors more evenly during the week.[16]

Names

The names Dubrovnik and Ragusa co-existed for several centuries. Ragusa, recorded in various forms since at least the 10th century, remained the official name of the Republic of Ragusa until 1808, and of the city within the Kingdom of Dalmatia until 1918, while Dubrovnik, first recorded in the late 12th century, was in widespread use by the late 16th or early 17th century.[17]

The name Dubrovnik of the Adriatic city is first recorded in the Charter of Ban Kulin (1189).[18] It is mostly explained as "dubron", a Celtic name for water (Gaulish dubron, Irish dobar, Welsh dubr/dwfr, Cornish dofer), akin to the toponyms Douvres, Dover, and Tauber.[19]

The historical name Ragusa is recorded in the Greek form Ῥαούσιν (Rhaousin, Latinized Ragusium) in the 10th century. It was recorded in various forms in the medieval period, Rausia, Lavusa, Labusa, Raugia, Rachusa. Various attempts have been made to etymologize the name. Suggestions include derivation from Greek ῥάξ, ῥαγός "grape"; from Greek ῥώξ, ῥωγός "narrow passage"; Greek ῥωγάς "ragged (of rocks)", ῥαγή (ῥαγάς) "fissure"; from the name of the Epirote tribe of the Rhogoi, from an unidentified Illyrian substrate. A connection to the name of Sicilian Ragusa has also been proposed. Putanec (1993) gives a review of etymological suggestion, and favours an explanation of the name as pre-Greek ("Pelasgian"), from a root cognate to Greek ῥαγή "fissure", with a suffix -ussa also found in the Greek name of Brač, Elaphousa.[20]

The classical explanation of the name is due to Constantine Porphyrogenitus's De Administrando Imperio (10th century). According to this account, Ragusa (Ῥαούσιν) is the foundation of the refugees from Epidaurum (Ragusa Vecchia), a Greek city situated some 15 km (9 mi) to the south of Ragusa, when that city was destroyed in the Slavic incursions of the 7th century. The name is explained as a corruption of Lausa, the name of the rocky island on which the city was built (connected by Constantine to Greek λᾶας "rock, stone").

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Dubrovnik
العربية: دوبروفنيك
aragonés: Ragusa
asturianu: Dubrovnik
azərbaycanca: Dubrovnik
беларуская: Дуброўнік
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Дуброўнік
български: Дубровник
bosanski: Dubrovnik
brezhoneg: Dubrovnik
català: Dubrovnik
Чӑвашла: Дубровник
čeština: Dubrovník
Cymraeg: Dubrovnik
dansk: Dubrovnik
Deutsch: Dubrovnik
eesti: Dubrovnik
Ελληνικά: Ντούμπροβνικ
español: Dubrovnik
Esperanto: Dubrovnik
estremeñu: Dubrovnik
euskara: Dubrovnik
فارسی: دوبروونیک
français: Dubrovnik
Frysk: Dubrovnik
Gaeilge: Dubrovnic
galego: Dubrovnik
հայերեն: Դուբրովնիկ
hornjoserbsce: Dubrovnik
hrvatski: Dubrovnik
Bahasa Indonesia: Dubrovnik
íslenska: Dubrovnik
עברית: דוברובניק
ქართული: დუბროვნიკი
Kiswahili: Dubrovnik
Кыргызча: Дубровник
Latina: Ragusium
latviešu: Dubrovnika
Lëtzebuergesch: Dubrovnik
lietuvių: Dubrovnikas
magyar: Dubrovnik
македонски: Дубровник
მარგალური: დუბროვნიკი
Bahasa Melayu: Dubrovnik
Nederlands: Dubrovnik
нохчийн: Дубровник
norsk: Dubrovnik
norsk nynorsk: Dubrovnik
occitan: Dubrovnik
polski: Dubrownik
português: Dubrovnik
română: Dubrovnik
русский: Дубровник
саха тыла: Дубровник
sardu: Dubrovnik
Scots: Dubrovnik
Sesotho: Dubrovnik
shqip: Dubrovniku
Simple English: Dubrovnik
slovenčina: Dubrovník
slovenščina: Dubrovnik
کوردی: دوبرۆڤنیک
српски / srpski: Дубровник
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Dubrovnik
suomi: Dubrovnik
svenska: Dubrovnik
татарча/tatarça: Дубровник
Türkçe: Dubrovnik
українська: Дубровник
Tiếng Việt: Dubrovnik
Volapük: Dubrovnik
Winaray: Dubrovnik
ייִדיש: ראגוזא