Dub music

Dub is a genre of music[2] that grew out of reggae in the 1960s, and is commonly considered a subgenre,[3] though it has developed to extend beyond the scope of reggae. Music in this genre consists predominantly of instrumental remixes of existing recordings[4] and is achieved by significantly manipulating and reshaping the recordings, usually by removing the vocals from an existing music piece, and emphasizing the drum and bass parts (this stripped-down track is sometimes referred to as a riddim). Other techniques include dynamically adding extensive echo, reverb, panoramic delay, and occasional dubbing of vocal or instrumental snippets from the original version or other works. It was an early form of popular electronic music.[5] The Roland Space Echo was widely used by dub producers in the 1970s to produce echo and delay effects.[1]

Dub was pioneered by Osbourne "King Tubby" Ruddock, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Errol Thompson and others[3] in the late 1960s. Augustus Pablo is credited with bringing the melodica to dub, and is also among the pioneers and creators of the genre. Similar experiments with recordings at the mixing desk outside the dancehall environment were also done by producers Clive Chin and Herman Chin Loy.[6] These producers, especially Ruddock and Perry, looked upon the mixing console as an instrument, manipulating tracks to come up with something new and different. Dub has influenced many genres of music, including rock (most significantly the subgenre of post-punk and other kinds of punk[7]), pop,[8] hip hop,[7] disco, and later house,[9] techno,[9] ambient,[9] electronic dance music,[10] and trip hop.[9] Dub has become a basis for the genres of jungle and drum and bass[11][12][13] Traditional dub has survived, and some of the originators, such as Lee "Scratch" Perry and Mad Professor, continue to produce new material.


The verb dub is defined as making a copy of one recording to another. The process of using previously recorded material, modifying the material, and subsequently recording it to a new master mix, in effect doubling or "dubbing" the material, was utilized by Jamaican producers when making dubs.[14] The term dub had multiple meanings in Jamaica around the time of the music's origin. The most frequent meanings referred to either a form of erotic dance or sexual intercourse;[15] such usage is frequently present in names of reggae songs, for instance, of The Silvertones' "Dub the Pum Pum" (where pum pum is Jamaican slang for female genitalia), Big Joe and Fay's "Dub a Dawta" (dawta is Jamaican slang for girlfriend). I-Roy's "Sister Maggie Breast" features several references on sex:

I man a-dub it on the side

Say little sister you can run but you can't hide
Slip you got to slide you got to open your crotches wide

Peace and love abide

Some musicians, for instance Bob Marley and The Wailers, had alternative meanings for the term dub. In concert, the order "dub this one!" meant "put an emphasis on bass and drums". Drummer Sly Dunbar points to a similar interpretation, relating the term dubwise to using only drums and bass.[14] Another possible source was the term dub plate, as suggested by Augustus Pablo.[16] John Corbett has suggested that dub could derive from duppy, a Jamaican patois word for ghost, as referenced by Burning Spear having named the dub version of his Marcus Garvey album Garvey's Ghost, and by Lee "Scratch" Perry stating that dub is "the ghost in me coming out".[17]

The word "duppy" also relates to "dub" through Jamaica's history of intra-racial terror, violence, and murder that is often overlooked in favor of Jamaican ideologies of racial solidarity. The ghosts of these victims, or "duppies", are thought to be captured best within the dub instrumentals. To describe dub in his study "When Echoes Return", Louis Chude-Sokei states, "Its swirling echoes are metaphors of loss while the disembodied voices and gunshots mimic the sound of ghosts, the sudden dead." [18]

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Dub (Musik)
asturianu: Dub
беларуская: Даб
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Даб
català: Dub
dansk: Dub
Deutsch: Dub
español: Dub
فارسی: داب
français: Dub
한국어: 덥 음악
hrvatski: Dub
íslenska: Döbb
italiano: Dub
magyar: Dub
Nederlands: Dub (muziek)
Nedersaksies: Dub
日本語: ダブ
norsk: Dub
norsk nynorsk: Dub-musikk
Piemontèis: Dub
polski: Dub
português: Dub
русский: Даб
српски / srpski: Даб
suomi: Dub
svenska: Dub
Türkçe: Dub