Drug overdose

Drug overdose
US timeline. Drugs involved in overdose deaths.jpg
US yearly overdose deaths, and the drugs involved. Among the more than 64,000 deaths estimated in 2016, the sharpest increase occurred among deaths related to fentanyl and fentanyl analogs (synthetic opioids) with over 20,000 deaths.[1]
Classification and external resources
SpecialtyToxicology
ICD-10T36-T50
ICD-9-CM960-979
DiseasesDB3971
MeSHD062787

The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended[2] or generally practiced.[3] An overdose may result in a toxic state or death.[3]

Classification

The word "overdose" implies that there is a common safe dosage and usage for the drug; therefore, the term is commonly only applied to drugs, not poisons, though even poisons are harmless at a low enough dosage. Drug overdoses are sometimes caused intentionally to commit suicide, parasuicide or as self-harm, but many drug overdoses are accidental, the result of intentional or unintentional misuse of medication. Intentional misuse leading to overdose can include using prescribed or unprescribed drugs in excessive quantities in an attempt to produce euphoria.

Usage of illicit drugs of unexpected purity, in large quantities, or after a period of drug abstinence can also induce overdose. Cocaine users who inject intravenously can easily overdose accidentally, as the margin between a pleasurable drug sensation and an overdose is small.[4] Unintentional misuse can include errors in dosage caused by failure to read or understand product labels. Accidental overdoses may also be the result of over-prescription, failure to recognize a drug's active ingredient, or unwitting ingestion by children.[5] A common unintentional overdose in young children involves multi-vitamins containing iron. Iron is a component of the hemoglobin molecule in blood, used to transport oxygen to living cells. When taken in small amounts, iron allows the body to replenish hemoglobin, but in large amounts it causes severe pH imbalances in the body. If this overdose is not treated with chelation therapy, it can lead to death or permanent coma. The term 'overdose' is often misused as a descriptor for adverse drug reactions or negative drug interactions due to mixing multiple drugs simultaneously.

Other Languages
العربية: جرعة زائدة
asturianu: Sobredosis
беларуская: Перадазіроўка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Перадазоўка
català: Sobredosi
dansk: Overdosis
Deutsch: Überdosis
español: Sobredosis
Esperanto: Trodozo
français: Overdose
Gaeilge: Ródháileog
한국어: 과다복용
hrvatski: Predoziranje
Bahasa Indonesia: Overdosis
italiano: Sovradosaggio
עברית: מנת יתר
latviešu: Pārdozēšana
Nederlands: Overdosis
norsk: Overdose
norsk nynorsk: Overdose
português: Overdose
Simple English: Overdose
српски / srpski: Предозирање
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Predoziranje
svenska: Överdos
українська: Передозування
中文: 藥物過量