Drug

Caffeine, contained in coffee and other beverages, is the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world.[1] 90% of North American adults consume the substance on a daily basis.[2]
Uncoated aspirin tablets, consisting of about 90% acetylsalicylic acid, along with a minor amount of inert fillers and binders. Aspirin is a pharmaceutical drug often used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation.

A drug is any substance that causes a change in an organism's physiology or psychology when consumed.[3][4]

Drugs are typically distinguished from food and substances that provide nutritional support. Consumption of drugs can be via inhalation, injection, smoking, ingestion, absorption via a patch on the skin, or dissolution under the tongue.

In pharmacology, a drug is a chemical substance, typically of known structure, which, when administered to a living organism, produces a biological effect.[5] A pharmaceutical drug, also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being.[3] Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants, but more recently also by organic synthesis.[6] Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.[7]

Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classes—groups of related drugs that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (binding to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and that are used to treat the same disease.[8][9] The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC), the most widely used drug classification system, assigns drugs a unique ATC code, which is an alphanumeric code that assigns it to specific drug classes within the ATC system. Another major classification system is the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. This classifies drugs according to their solubility and permeability or absorption properties.[10]

Psychoactive drugs are chemical substances that affect the function of the central nervous system, altering perception, mood or consciousness.[11] These drugs are divided into different groups like: stimulants, depressants, antidepressants, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, and hallucinogens. These psychotropic drugs have been proven useful in treating wide range of medical conditions including mental disorders around the world. The most widely used drugs in the world include caffeine, nicotine and alcohol,[12] which are also considered recreational drugs, since they are used for pleasure rather than medicinal purposes.[13] Abuse of several psychoactive drugs can cause psychological or physical addiction.[14] It's worth noting that all drugs can have potential side effects.[15] Excessive use of stimulants can promote stimulant psychosis. Many recreational drugs are illicit and international treaties such as the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs exist for the purpose of their prohibition.

Etymology

In English, the noun "drug" is thought to originate from Old French "drogue", possibly deriving later into "droge-vate" from Middle Dutch meaning "dry barrels", referring to medicinal plants preserved in them.[16] The transitive verb "to drug" (meaning intentionally administer a substance to someone, often without their knowledge) arose later and invokes the psychoactive rather than medicinal properties of a substance.[17]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Dwelmmiddel
Alemannisch: Droge
አማርኛ: መድኃኒት
asturianu: Droga
تۆرکجه: دواء
বাংলা: ঔষধ
Bân-lâm-gú: Io̍h-bu̍t
bosanski: Droga
brezhoneg: Dramm
català: Droga
Cymraeg: Cyffur
Deutsch: Droge
eesti: Droog
español: Droga
Esperanto: Drogo
euskara: Droga
فارسی: دارو
føroyskt: Rúsevni
français: Drogue
Gaeilge: Druga
galego: Droga
한국어:
Ido: Drogo
Bahasa Indonesia: Obat
interlingua: Droga
italiano: Droga
עברית: סם (כללי)
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಡ್ರಗ್
Kreyòl ayisyen: Dwòg
kurdî: Tiryak
Latina: Medicamentum
lumbaart: Droga
македонски: Дрога
Bahasa Melayu: Dadah
Minangkabau: Ubek
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Iŏh
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဆေး
Nederlands: Drug
日本語: 薬物
occitan: Dròga
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਡਰੱਗ
Patois: Jogz
polski: Używka
português: Droga
română: Drog
Scots: Drog
shqip: Droga
sicilianu: Droga
සිංහල: බෙහෙත්
Simple English: Drug
српски / srpski: Дрога
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Droga
Sunda: Ubar
svenska: Drog
тоҷикӣ: Дору
Tiếng Việt: Chất gây nghiện
吴语: 药物
ייִדיש: דראג
粵語:
中文: 药物