During the Syrian Civil War, Douma has been a major flashpoint and witnessed numerous demonstrations against the Syrian government and armed clashes against the Syrian Army and Security forces during the early stages of the conflict.
On 30 January 2012, the Syrian Army gained control of the city after the Battle of Douma, a major operation against the opposition armed groups in Rif Dimashq Governorate.
On 29 June 2012, the Syrian Army was accused of committing a massacre in Douma, where more than 50 people were killed.
As of 18 October 2012, the Free Syrian Army was in control of most of the suburb. Fighting and bombardments continued in the town.
Douma is the main city of the Siege of Eastern Ghouta, begun in April 2013, isolating 400,000 people in a 100 square kilometre area. UN and Red Cross aid convoys were able to reach Douma with food and supplies once in 2018.
In the 2015 Douma market massacre, the city was attacked by Syrian Army ground-to-ground missiles, leaving at least 50 dead and several more missing.
In early 2018, the main rebel faction based in the city was Saudi Arabian-backed Jaysh al-Islam (Army of Islam), with an estimated 10-15,000 fighters in the region.
On 7 April 2018, a suspected chemical attack was carried out in the city, attributed to Syrian President, Bashar al-Assad by many Western nations including the United States and the United Kingdom. On 14 April 2018, the Syrian government forces entered the city after the evacuation deal saw rebels go to the Turkish-controlled northern Syria.