Violence against Chinese Indonesians is generally limited to property, including factories and shops. However, killings and assaults have happened, including in
Batavia in 1740,
Tangerang in 1946, during the period after the
30 September Movement of 1965, and during the May 1998 riots.
Chinese Indonesians have become "the typical
scapegoat" in situations where widespread discontent and social unrest becomes violent. The scapegoating has become more pronounced during the period since Indonesia’s independence.
Terms considered disparaging against Chinese Indonesians have entered common
Indonesian usage, at both the regional and national levels. The term Cina, the use of which was mandated in 1967 instead of the then-commonly used Tionghoa, was perceived as having similar negative connotations to inlander for Native Indonesians and
people of African descent. The term Tionghoa began to be used again after the beginning of Reformation, but by then Cina was not considered negative by the younger generation of Chinese Indonesians.
In different regions different terms have come into use that reflect common stereotypes. The following examples are from
||The largest portion of food
||Smelling of the Chinese
||Newly purchased items
Beginning in the
legislation was introduced specifically against Chinese Indonesians. One of the first was in 1816 and required ethnic Chinese to carry a special pass at all times.
During the Sukarno regime in 1958, all Chinese Indonesians were required to state their intent to stay Indonesian citizens
[a] and in 1959 they were forbidden from doing business outside of urban areas.
[b] The discrimination continued into the New Order. Chinese Indonesians were urged to choose
[c] forbidden to practice their traditions,
[d] and required to obtain extra proof of citizenship.
[d] In total, forty five directly or indirectly discriminatory laws were passed during the New Order. The majority of this legislation was rescinded during the presidencies of
Abdurrahman Wahid and
Megawati Sukarnoputri, instances of enforcement continue.