Dionysus

Dionysus
God of the vine, grape harvest, winemaking, wine, ritual madness, religious ecstasy, and theatre
Dionysos Louvre Ma87 n2.jpg
AbodeMount Olympus
SymbolThyrsus, grapevine, leopard skin, panther, tiger, cheetah
Personal information
ConsortAriadne
ChildrenPriapus, Hymen, Thoas, Staphylus, Oenopion, Comus, Phthonus, the Graces, Deianira
ParentsZeus and Semele
Zeus and Persephone (Orphic)
SiblingsAeacus, Angelos, Aphrodite, Apollo, Ares, Artemis, Athena, Eileithyia, Enyo, Eris, Ersa, Hebe, Helen of Troy, Hephaestus, Heracles, Hermes, Minos, Pandia, Persephone, Perseus, Rhadamanthus, the Graces, the Horae, the Litae, the Muses, the Moirai
Roman equivalentBacchus, Liber
Etruscan equivalentFufluns

Dionysus (s/; Greek: Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility,[2][3] theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth. Wine played an important role in Greek culture, and the cult of Dionysus was the main religious focus for its unrestrained consumption.[4] His worship became firmly established in the seventh century BC.[5] He may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks;[6][7] traces of Dionysian-type cult have also been found in ancient Minoan Crete.[8] His origins are uncertain, and his cults took many forms; some are described by ancient sources as Thracian, others as Greek.[9][10][11] In some cults, he arrives from the east, as an Asiatic foreigner; in others, from Ethiopia in the South. He is a god of epiphany, "the god that comes", and his "foreignness" as an arriving outsider-god may be inherent and essential to his cults. He is a major, popular figure of Greek mythology and religion, becoming increasingly important over time, and included in some lists of the twelve Olympians, as the last of their number, and the only god born from a mortal mother.[12] His festivals were the driving force behind the development of Greek theatre.[13]

The earliest cult images of Dionysus show a mature male, bearded and robed. He holds a fennel staff, tipped with a pine-cone and known as a thyrsus. Later images show him as a beardless, sensuous, naked or half-naked androgynous youth: the literature describes him as womanly or "man-womanish".[14] In its fully developed form, his central cult imagery shows his triumphant, disorderly arrival or return, as if from some place beyond the borders of the known and civilized. His procession (thiasus) is made up of wild female followers (maenads) and bearded satyrs with erect penises; some are armed with the thyrsus, some dance or play music. The god himself is drawn in a chariot, usually by exotic beasts such as lions or tigers, and is sometimes attended by a bearded, drunken Silenus. This procession is presumed to be the cult model for the followers of his Dionysian Mysteries. Dionysus is represented by city religions as the protector of those who do not belong to conventional society and he thus symbolizes the chaotic, dangerous and unexpected, everything which escapes human reason and which can only be attributed to the unforeseeable action of the gods.[15]

He is also known as Bacchus (s/ or s/; Greek: Βάκχος, Bakkhos), the name adopted by the Romans[16] and the frenzy he induces is bakkheia. His thyrsus, sometimes wound with ivy and dripping with honey, is both a beneficent wand and a weapon used to destroy those who oppose his cult and the freedoms he represents. As Eleutherios ("the liberator"), his wine, music and ecstatic dance free his followers from self-conscious fear and care, and subvert the oppressive restraints of the powerful. Those who partake of his mysteries are possessed and empowered by the god himself.[17]

The cult of Dionysus is also a "cult of the souls"; his maenads feed the dead through blood-offerings, and he acts as a divine communicant between the living and the dead.[18] He is sometimes categorised as a dying-and-rising god.[13]

In Greek mythology, he is presented as a son of Zeus and the mortal Semele, thus semi-divine or heroic: and as son of Zeus and Persephone or Demeter, thus both fully divine, part-chthonic and possibly identical with Iacchus of the Eleusinian Mysteries. Some scholars believe that Dionysus is a syncretism of a local Greek nature deity and a more powerful god from Thrace or Phrygia such as Sabazios or Zalmoxis.

Etymology

The dio- element has been associated since antiquity with Zeus (genitive Dios). The earliest attested form of the name is Mycenaean Greek 𐀇𐀺𐀝𐀰, di-wo-nu-so, written in Linear B syllabic script, presumably for /Diwo(h)nūsoio/. This is attested on two tablets that had been found at Mycenaean Pylos and dated to the 12th or 13th century BC, but at the time, there could be no certainty on whether this was indeed a theonym.[19][20] But the 1989–90 Greek-Swedish Excavations at Kastelli Hill, Chania, unearthed, inter alia, four artefacts bearing Linear B inscriptions; among them, the inscription on item KH Gq 5 is thought to confirm Dionysus's early worship.[7]

Dionysus extending a drinking cup (kantharos) (late 6th century BC)

Later variants include Dionūsos and Diōnūsos in Boeotia; Dien(n)ūsos in Thessaly; Deonūsos and Deunūsos in Ionia; and Dinnūsos in Aeolia, besides other variants. A Dio- prefix is found in other names, such as that of the Dioscures, and may derive from Dios, the genitive of the name of Zeus.[21] The second element -nūsos is associated with Mount Nysa, the birthplace of the god in Greek mythology, where he was nursed by nymphs (the Nysiads),[22] but according to Pherecydes of Syros, nũsa was an archaic word for "tree".[23]

Nonnus, in his Dionysiaca, writes that the name Dionysus means "Zeus-limp" and that Hermes named the new born Dionysus this, "because Zeus while he carried his burden lifted one foot with a limp from the weight of his thigh, and nysos in Syracusan language means limping".[24] In his note to these lines, W. H. D. Rouse writes "It need hardly be said that these etymologies are wrong".[24] The Suda, a Byzantine encyclopedia based on classical sources, states that Dionysus was so named "from accomplishing [διανύειν ] for each of those who live the wild life. Or from providing [διανοεῖν ] everything for those who live the wild life.”[25]

R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin of the name.[26]

The cult of Dionysus was closely associated with trees, specifically the fig tree, and some of his bynames exhibit this, such as Endendros "he in the tree" or Dendritēs, "he of the tree". Peters suggests the original meaning as "he who runs among the trees", or that of a "runner in the woods". Janda (2010) accepts the etymology but proposes the more cosmological interpretation of "he who impels the (world-)tree". This interpretation explains how Nysa could have been re-interpreted from a meaning of "tree" to the name of a mountain: the axis mundi of Indo-European mythology is represented both as a world-tree and as a world-mountain.[27]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Dionisos
Alemannisch: Dionysos
አማርኛ: ዲዮኒሶስ
العربية: ديونيسوس
aragonés: Dionís
asturianu: Dioniso
azərbaycanca: Dionis
Bân-lâm-gú: Dionysus
беларуская: Дыяніс
български: Дионис
Boarisch: Dionysos
bosanski: Dionis
brezhoneg: Dionysos
català: Dionís
Чӑвашла: Дионис
čeština: Dionýsos
dansk: Dionysos
Deutsch: Dionysos
eesti: Dionysos
Ελληνικά: Διόνυσος
español: Dioniso
Esperanto: Dionizo
euskara: Dioniso
فارسی: دیونیسوس
français: Dionysos
Gaeilge: Dinísias
galego: Dioniso
한국어: 디오니소스
Հայերեն: Դիոնիսոս
हिन्दी: डायोनाइसस
hrvatski: Dioniz
Bahasa Indonesia: Dionisos
íslenska: Díonýsos
italiano: Dioniso
עברית: דיוניסוס
ქართული: დიონისე
қазақша: Дионис
Kiswahili: Dioniso
latviešu: Dionīss
Lëtzebuergesch: Dionysos
lietuvių: Dionisas
magyar: Dionüszosz
македонски: Дионис
മലയാളം: ഡൈനീഷ്യസ്
Bahasa Melayu: Dionysus
norsk: Dionysos
norsk nynorsk: Dionysos
occitan: Dionís
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Dionis
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਡੀਓਨਾਇਸਸ
Plattdüütsch: Dionysos
polski: Dionizos
português: Dioniso
română: Dionis
русский: Дионис
Scots: Dionysus
shqip: Dionisi
sicilianu: Dionisu
Simple English: Dionysus
slovenčina: Dionýzos
slovenščina: Dioniz
српски / srpski: Дионис
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Dioniz
suomi: Dionysos
svenska: Dionysos
Tagalog: Dionysos
தமிழ்: டயோனிசசு
татарча/tatarça: Dionis
Türkçe: Dionysos
українська: Діоніс
اردو: دیانوسس
vepsän kel’: Dionis
Tiếng Việt: Dionysus
Winaray: Dionysus
Zazaki: Dionysos