Digital object identifier

Digital object identifier
DOI logo.svg
AcronymDOI
Introduced2000 (2000)
Managing organisationInternational DOI Foundation
Example10.1000/182
Websitewww.doi.org

In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.

A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata.

The DOI for a document remains fixed over the lifetime of the document, whereas its location and other metadata may change. Referring to an online document by its DOI is supposed to provide a more stable link than simply using its URL. But every time a URL changes, the publisher has to update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL.[4][5][6] It is the publisher's responsibility to update the DOI database. If they fail to do so, the DOI resolves to a dead link leaving the DOI useless.

The developer and administrator of the DOI system is the International DOI Foundation (IDF), which introduced it in 2000.[7] Organizations that meet the contractual obligations of the DOI system and are willing to pay to become a member of the system can assign DOIs.[8] The DOI system is implemented through a federation of registration agencies coordinated by the IDF.[9] By late April 2011 more than 50 million DOI names had been assigned by some 4,000 organizations,[10] and by April 2013 this number had grown to 85 million DOI names assigned through 9,500 organizations.

Nomenclature and syntax

A DOI is a type of Handle System handle, which takes the form of a character string divided into two parts, a prefix and a suffix, separated by a slash.

prefix/suffix

The prefix identifies the registrant of the identifier, and the suffix is chosen by the registrant and identifies the specific object associated with that DOI. Most legal Unicode characters are allowed in these strings, which are interpreted in a case-insensitive manner. The prefix usually takes the form 10.NNNN, where NNNN is a series of at least 4 numbers greater than or equal to 1000, whose limit depends only on the total number of registrants.[11][12] The prefix may be further subdivided with periods, like 10.NNNN.N.[13]

For example, in the DOI name 10.1000/182, the prefix is 10.1000 and the suffix is 182. The "10." part of the prefix distinguishes the handle as part of the DOI namespace, as opposed to some other Handle System namespace,[A] and the characters 1000 in the prefix identify the registrant; in this case the registrant is the International DOI Foundation itself. 182 is the suffix, or item ID, identifying a single object (in this case, the latest version of the DOI Handbook).

DOI names can identify creative works (such as texts, images, audio or video items, and software) in both electronic and physical forms, performances, and abstract works[14] such as licenses, parties to a transaction, etc.

The names can refer to objects at varying levels of detail: thus DOI names can identify a journal, an individual issue of a journal, an individual article in the journal, or a single table in that article. The choice of level of detail is left to the assigner, but in the DOI system it must be declared as part of the metadata that is associated with a DOI name, using a data dictionary based on the indecs Content Model.

Display

The official DOI Handbook explicitly states that DOIs should display on screens and in print in the format doi:10.1000/182.[15]

Contrary to the DOI Handbook, doi:10.1000/182)[16][17] This URL is persistent (there is a contract that ensures persistence in the DOI.ORG domain), so it is a PURL — providing the location of an HTTP proxy server which will redirect web accesses to the correct online location of the linked item.[8][18]

The CrossRef recommendation is primarily based on the assumption that the DOI is being displayed without being hyper-linked to its appropriate URL – the argument being that without the hyperlink it is not as easy to copy-and-paste the full URL to actually bring up the page for the DOI, thus the entire URL should be displayed, allowing people viewing the page containing the DOI to copy-and-paste the URL, by hand, into a new window/tab in their browser in order to go to the appropriate page for the document the DOI represents.[19]

Other Languages
català: DOI
eesti: DOI
Ελληνικά: Digital Object Identifier
Bahasa Indonesia: Pengenal objek digital
Bahasa Melayu: Pengecam objek digital
မြန်မာဘာသာ: Digital object identifier
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Raqamli obyekt identifikatori
српски / srpski: Digitalni identifikator objekta
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Digitalni identifikator objekta
suomi: DOI
Tiếng Việt: DOI
中文: DOI