Dick Cheney

Dick Cheney
Richard Cheney 2005 official portrait.jpg
46th Vice President of the United States
In office
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
PresidentGeorge W. Bush
Preceded byAl Gore
Succeeded byJoe Biden
17th United States Secretary of Defense
In office
March 21, 1989 – January 20, 1993
PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush
DeputyDonald J. Atwood Jr.
Preceded byFrank Carlucci
Succeeded byLes Aspin
House Minority Whip
In office
January 3, 1989 – March 20, 1989
LeaderRobert H. Michel
Preceded byTrent Lott
Succeeded byNewt Gingrich
Chair of the House Republican Conference
In office
June 4, 1987 – January 3, 1989
LeaderRobert H. Michel
Preceded byJack Kemp
Succeeded byJerry Lewis
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Wyoming's at-large district
In office
January 3, 1979 – March 20, 1989
Preceded byTeno Roncalio
Succeeded byCraig L. Thomas
7th White House Chief of Staff
In office
November 21, 1975 – January 20, 1977
PresidentGerald Ford
Preceded byDonald Rumsfeld
Succeeded byHamilton Jordan (1979)
Personal details
Richard Bruce Cheney

(1941-01-30) January 30, 1941 (age 78)
Lincoln, Nebraska, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Lynne Vincent (m. 1964)
EducationYale University
University of Wyoming (BA, MA)
University of Wisconsin–Madison
SignatureCursive signature in ink

Richard Bruce Cheney (i/;[1] born January 30, 1941) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 46th vice president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He has been cited as the most powerful vice president in American history.[2][3] He was also one of the most unpopular politicians in the history of the US, holding an approval rating of just 13% at the time of leaving office.[4]

Cheney was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, and grew up in Casper, Wyoming.[5] He attended Yale and then the University of Wyoming, at the latter of which he earned a BA and an MA in Political Science. He began his political career as an intern for Congressman William A. Steiger, eventually working his way into the White House during the Nixon and Ford administrations, where he later served as the White House chief of staff, from 1975 to 1977. In 1978, Cheney was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives representing Wyoming's at-large congressional district from 1979 to 1989; he was reelected five times, briefly serving as House minority whip in 1989. Cheney was selected to be the secretary of defense during the presidency of George H. W. Bush, holding the position for the majority of Bush's term from 1989 to 1993.[6] During his time in the Department of Defense, Cheney oversaw the 1991 Operation Desert Storm, among other actions. Out of office during the Clinton administration, Cheney was the Chairman and CEO of Halliburton Company from 1995 to 2000.

In July 2000, Cheney was chosen by presumptive Republican Presidential nominee George W. Bush as his running mate in the 2000 Presidential election. They defeated their Democratic opponents, incumbent Vice President Al Gore and Senator Joe Lieberman. In 2004 Cheney was reelected to his second term as Vice President with Bush as President, defeating their Democratic opponents Senators John Kerry and John Edwards. During Cheney's tenure as Vice President, he played a leading behind-the-scenes role in the George W. Bush administration's response to the September 11 attacks and coordination of the Global War on Terrorism. He was an early proponent of invading Iraq and defender of the Administration's anti-terrorism record. He became at odds with President Bush's position against same-sex marriage in 2004.[7] Cheney was often criticized for the Bush Administration's policies regarding the campaign against terrorism, wiretapping by the National Security Agency (NSA) and torture.[8][9][10]

Early life and education

Cheney was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, the son of Marjorie Lorraine (née Dickey) and Richard Herbert Cheney. He is of predominantly English, as well as Welsh, Irish, and French Huguenot ancestry; Cheney's 8th great-grandfather, William Cheney, immigrated from England to Massachusetts in the 17th century.[11][12][13] Cheney is a very distant cousin of both Harry S. Truman and Barack Obama; the three share a common ancestor in Mareen Duvall, a Huguenot who fled from France to England in the 17th century and later settled in Maryland.[14] His father was a soil conservation agent for the U.S. Department of Agriculture and his mother was a softball star in the 1930s;[15] Cheney was one of three children.

He attended Calvert Elementary School[16][17] before his family moved to Casper, Wyoming,[18] where he attended Natrona County High School.

He attended Yale University, but by his own account had problems adjusting to the college, and dropped out.[19][20] Among the influential teachers from his days in New Haven was Professor H. Bradford Westerfield, whom Cheney repeatedly credited with having helped to shape his approach to foreign policy.[21] He later attended the University of Wyoming, where he earned both a Bachelor of Arts and a Master of Arts in political science. He subsequently started, but did not finish, doctoral studies at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.[22]

In November 1962, at the age of 21, Cheney was convicted of driving while intoxicated (DWI). He was arrested for DWI again the following year.[23] Cheney said that the arrests made him "think about where I was and where I was headed. I was headed down a bad road if I continued on that course."[24]

In 1964, he married Lynne Vincent, his high school sweetheart, whom he had met at age 14.

When Cheney became eligible for the draft, during the Vietnam War, he applied for and received five draft deferments. In 1989, The Washington Post writer George C. Wilson interviewed Cheney as the next Secretary of Defense; when asked about his deferments, Cheney reportedly said, "I had other priorities in the '60s than military service."[25] Cheney testified during his confirmation hearings in 1989 that he received deferments to finish a college career that lasted six years rather than four, owing to sub-par academic performance and the need to work to pay for his education. Upon graduation, Cheney was eligible for the draft, but at the time, the Selective Service System was not inducting married men.[26] On October 6, 1965, the draft was expanded to include married men without children; Cheney's first daughter, Elizabeth, was born 9 months and two days later.[27][26] Cheney's fifth and final deferment granted him "3-A" status, a "hardship" deferment available to men with dependents. In January 1967, Cheney turned 26 and was no longer eligible for the draft.[27]

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کوردی: دیک چەینی
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اردو: ڈک چینی
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粵語: 切尼