Diaphragm (birth control)
An arcing spring diaphragm in its case, with a
|First use||1880s |
|Failure rates (first year with
|Perfect use||6% |
|Typical use||12% |
|User reminders||Inserted before sex with spermicide.
Left in place for 6–8 hours afterwards
|Advantages and disadvantages|
|Periods||Catches menstrual flow|
|Benefits||May be reused 1 to 3 years|
|Risks||Urinary tract infection, toxic shock syndrome (rare)|
The diaphragm is a
Side effects are usually very few.
 Use may increase the risk of
The diaphragm came into use around 1882.
 It is on the
Before inserting or removing a diaphragm, one should first wash one's hands  to avoid introducing harmful bacteria into the vaginal canal.
The rim of a diaphragm is squeezed into an oval or arc shape for insertion. A water-based lubricant (usually spermicide) may be applied to the rim of the diaphragm to aid insertion. One
The diaphragm must be inserted sometime before
Oil-based products should not be used with latex diaphragms. Lubricants or vaginal medications that contain oil will cause the latex to rapidly degrade and greatly increases the chances of the diaphragm breaking or tearing. 
Natural latex rubber will degrade over time. Depending on usage and storage conditions, a latex diaphragm should be replaced every one to three years.   Silicone diaphragms may last much longer—up to ten years.
The effectiveness of diaphragms, as of most forms of
For all forms of contraception, actual effectiveness is lower than method effectiveness, due to several factors:
For instance, someone using a diaphragm might be fitted incorrectly by a health care provider, or by mistake remove the diaphragm too soon after intercourse, or simply choose to have intercourse without placing the diaphragm.
Contraceptive Technology reports that the method failure rate of the diaphragm with spermicide is 6% per year. 
Unlike some other cervical barriers, the effectiveness of the diaphragm is the same for women who have given birth as for those who have not. 
The diaphragm does not interfere with a woman's natural cycle, therefore, no reversal or wait time is necessary, if contraception is no longer wanted or needed.
The diaphragm only has to be used during intercourse. Many women, especially those who have sex less frequently, prefer
Like all cervical barriers, diaphragms may be inserted several hours before use, allowing uninterrupted foreplay and intercourse. Most couples find that neither partner can feel the diaphragm during intercourse.
The diaphragm is less expensive than many other methods of contraception. 
There is some evidence that the cells in the cervix are particularly susceptible to certain