Dialysis

Renal Dialysis
Patient receiving dialysis 03.jpg
Patient receiving hemodialysis
Specialty nephrology
ICD-9-CM 39.95
MeSH D006435
MedlinePlus 00743

In medicine, dialysis, [from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, (dissolution), from διά, dià, (through), and λύσις, (lỳsis) (loosening or splitting)], is the process of removing, by artificial means, excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform those functions. This is referred to as renal replacement therapy.

Dialysis may be used in those with rapidly developing loss of kidney function, called acute kidney injury, (previously called acute renal failure); or slowly worsening kidney function, called Stage 5 chronic kidney disease, (previously called chronic kidney failure and end-stage renal disease and end-stage kidney disease).

Dialysis is used as a temporary measure in either acute kidney injury or in those awaiting kidney transplant; and as a permanent measure in those for whom a transplant is not indicated or not possible. [1]

In Great Britain and the United States, dialysis is paid for by the government for those that are eligible. The first successful dialysis was performed in 1943.

In research laboratories, dialysis technique can also be used to separate molecules based on their size. Additionally, it can be used to balance buffer between sample and the solution "dialysis bath" or "dialysate" [2] that the sample is in. For dialysis in a laboratory semipermeable membrane is used as a tube made of cellulose acetate or nitrocellulose [3] where pore size can vary according to the size separation required. Control over pore size allows a better separation between small molecules while leaving large molecules of interest inside. Solvents, ions diffuse easily through the pores, while leaving the big molecules behind and separate. In protein purification technique dialysis is used to exchange buffers, loose smaller proteins that can pass through the pores, dilutions of concentrated salts, while leaving the protein of interest inside the semipermeable membrane separated.

Background

A hemodialysis machine

The kidneys have an important role in maintaining health. When the person is healthy, the kidneys maintain the body's internal equilibrium of water and minerals (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfate). The acidic metabolism end-products that the body cannot get rid of via respiration are also excreted through the kidneys. The kidneys also function as a part of the endocrine system, producing erythropoietin, calcitriol and renin. Erythropoietin is involved in the production of red blood cells and calcitriol plays a role in bone formation. [4] Dialysis is an imperfect treatment to replace kidney function because it does not correct the compromised endocrine functions of the kidney. Dialysis treatments replace some of these functions through diffusion (waste removal) and ultrafiltration (fluid removal). [5] Dialysis uses highly purified (also known as "ultrapure") water. [6]

Other Languages
العربية: غسيل كلوي
bosanski: Dijaliza
čeština: Dialýza
Cymraeg: Dialysis
dansk: Dialyse
Deutsch: Dialyse
español: Diálisis
Esperanto: Dializo
euskara: Dialisi
فارسی: دیالیز
français: Dialyse
Gaeilge: Scagdhealú
한국어: 인공투석
हिन्दी: डायलिसिस
hrvatski: Dijaliza
Bahasa Indonesia: Dialisis
עברית: דיאליזה
ქართული: დიალიზი
lietuvių: Dializė
magyar: Dialízis
മലയാളം: ഡയാലിസിസ്
Bahasa Melayu: Dialisis
Nederlands: Dialyse
日本語: 人工透析
norsk: Dialyse
norsk nynorsk: Dialyse
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Dializ
polski: Dializa
português: Diálise
shqip: Dializa
Simple English: Dialysis
српски / srpski: Дијализа
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Dijaliza
suomi: Dialyysi
svenska: Dialys
Türkçe: Diyaliz
українська: Діаліз (урологія)
粵語: 洗腎
中文: 透析