Dharma

Dharma
A havan ceremony on the banks of Ganges, Muni ki Reti, Rishikesh.jpg
Rituals and rites of passage [1]
Yoga Meditation Pos-410px.png
Yoga, personal behaviors [2]
Ahimsa.svg
Virtues such as Ahimsa (non-violence) [3]
Balanced scales.svg
Law and justice [4]
Raja Ravi Varma - Sankaracharya.jpg
Sannyasa and stages of life [5]
Dharma Wheel.svg
Duties, such as learning from teachers [6]
Dharma has multiple meanings. [7] Above are a few examples.

Dharma ( ʌr-/ [8], [dʱəɾmə] ( About this sound  listen); Sanskrit: धर्म, translit. dharma, Pali: धम्म, translit. dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religionsHinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism. [9] There is no single word translation for dharma in Western languages. [10]

In Hinduism, dharma signifies behaviours that are considered to be in accord with rta, the order that makes life and universe possible, [11] [note 1] and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and ‘‘right way of living’’. [7] In Buddhism dharma means "cosmic law and order", [11] but is also applied to the teachings of the Buddha. [11] In Buddhist philosophy, dhamma/dharma is also the term for " phenomena". [12] [note 2] Dharma in Jainism refers to the teachings of tirthankara (Jina) [11] and the body of doctrine pertaining to the purification and moral transformation of human beings. For Sikhs, the word dharm means the path of righteousness and proper religious practice. [13]

The word "dharma" was already in use in the historical Vedic religion, and its meaning and conceptual scope has evolved over several millennia. [14] The antonym of dharma is adharma.

Etymology

The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma is a derivation from the root dhṛ, which means "to hold, maintain, keep", [note 3] and takes a meaning of "what is established or firm", and hence "law". It is derived from an older Vedic Sanskrit n-stem dharman-, with a literal meaning of "bearer, supporter", in a religious sense conceived as an aspect of Rta. [16]

In the Rigveda, the word appears as an n-stem, dhárman-, with a range of meanings encompassing "something established or firm" (in the literal sense of prods or poles). Figuratively, it means "sustainer" and "supporter" (of deities). It is semantically similar to the Greek Themis ("fixed decree, statute, law"). [17] In Classical Sanskrit, the noun becomes thematic: dharma-.

The word dharma derives from Proto-Indo-European root *dʰer- ("to hold"), [18] which in Sanskrit is reflected as class-1 root √dhṛ. Etymologically it is related to Avestan √dar- ("to hold"), Latin firmus ("steadfast, stable, powerful"), Lithuanian derė́ti ("to be suited, fit"), Lithuanian dermė ("agreement") [19] and darna ("harmony") and Old Church Slavonic drъžati ("to hold, possess"). Classical Sanskrit word dharmas would formally match with Latin o-stem firmus from Proto-Indo-European *dʰer-mo-s "holding", were it not for its historical development from earlier Rigvedic n-stem.

In Classical Sanskrit, and in the Vedic Sanskrit of the Atharvaveda, the stem is thematic: dhárma- ( Devanāgarī: धर्म). In Pāli, it is rendered dhamma. In some contemporary Indian languages and dialects it alternatively occurs as dharm.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Dharma
العربية: دارما
беларуская: Дхарма
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Дгарма
भोजपुरी: धर्म
български: Дхарма
བོད་ཡིག: ལྷ་ཆོས།
català: Dharma
čeština: Dharma
dansk: Dharma
Deutsch: Dharma
eesti: Dharma
Ελληνικά: Ντάρμα
español: Dharma
Esperanto: Darmo
euskara: Dharma
فارسی: درمه
français: Dharma
Հայերեն: Դհարմա
हिन्दी: धर्म
hrvatski: Dharma
Bahasa Indonesia: Dharma
íslenska: Dharma
italiano: Dharma
עברית: דהרמה
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಧರ್ಮ
ქართული: დჰარმა
қазақша: Дхарма
Кыргызча: Дхарма
latviešu: Darma
Lëtzebuergesch: Dharma
lietuvių: Dharma
मैथिली: धर्म
македонски: Дарма
मराठी: धम्म
მარგალური: დჰარმა
мокшень: Дхарма
Nederlands: Dharma
नेपाली: अछामे
norsk: Dharma
norsk nynorsk: Dharma
پنجابی: تعرم
پښتو: دهرما
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ព្រះធម៌
polski: Dharma
português: Darma
română: Dharma
русский: Дхарма
संस्कृतम्: धर्मः
sardu: Dharma
Scots: Dharma
Simple English: Dharma
slovenčina: Dharma
کوردی: دارما
српски / srpski: Дарма
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Darma
suomi: Dharma
svenska: Dharma
Tagalog: Dharma
தமிழ்: தருமம்
తెలుగు: ధర్మము
ไทย: ธรรม
Türkçe: Dharma
тыва дыл: Дхарма
українська: Дгарма
اردو: دھرم
Tiếng Việt: Pháp (Phật giáo)