Denver

Denver, Colorado
City and County of Denver
Denver Skyline
Colorado State Capitol
Denver Art Museum
Denver Union Station
Red Rocks Amphitheatre
Sports Authority Field at Mile High
Denver Millenium Bridge
Nicknames: 
The Mile High City[2]
Queen City of the Plains[3]
Wall Street of the West[4]
City/county configuration
City/county configuration
Denver is located in Colorado
Denver
Denver
Location within Colorado
Denver is located in the United States
Denver
Denver
Location within the United States
Denver is located in North America
Denver
Denver
Location within North America
Coordinates: 39°45′43″N 104°52′52″W / 39°45′43″N 104°52′52″W / 39.761850; -104.881105

Denver (ər/), officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado. Denver is located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The Denver downtown district is immediately east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River, approximately 12 mi (19 km) east of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Denver is named after James W. Denver, a governor of the Kansas Territory. It is nicknamed the Mile High City because its official elevation is exactly one mile (5280 feet or 1609.3 meters) above sea level.[17] The 105th meridian west of Greenwich, the longitudinal reference for the Mountain Time Zone, passes directly through Denver Union Station.

Denver is ranked as a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. With an estimated population of 716,492 in 2018, Denver is the 19th-most populous U.S. city, and with a 19.38% increase since the 2010 United States Census, it has been one of the fastest-growing major cities in the United States.[18] The 10-county Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated 2018 population of 2,932,415 and is the 19th most populous U.S. metropolitan statistical area.[19] The 12-city Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated 2018 population of 3,572,798 and is the 15th most populous U.S. metropolitan area.[20] Denver is the most populous city of the 18-county Front Range Urban Corridor, an oblong urban region stretching across two states with an estimated 2018 population of 4,976,781.[21] Denver is the most populous city within a 500-mile (800 km) radius and the second-most populous city in the Mountain West after Phoenix, Arizona. In 2016, Denver was named the best place to live in the United States by U.S. News & World Report.[22]

History

Former Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver visited his namesake city in 1875 and in 1882.
The "Bronco Buster", a variation of Frederic Remington's "Bronco Buster" western sculpture at the Denver capitol grounds, a gift from J.K. Mullen in 1920

In the summer of 1858, during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush, a group of gold prospectors from Lawrence, Kansas established Montana City as a mining town on the banks of the South Platte River in what was then western Kansas Territory. This was the first historical settlement in what was later to become the city of Denver. The site faded quickly, however, and by the summer of 1859 it was abandoned in favor of Auraria (named after the gold-mining town of Auraria, Georgia) and St. Charles City.[23]

On November 22, 1858, General William Larimer and Captain Jonathan Cox, Esquire, both land speculators from eastern Kansas Territory, placed cottonwood logs to stake a claim on the bluff overlooking the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek, across the creek from the existing mining settlement of Auraria, and on the site of the existing townsite of St. Charles. Larimer named the townsite Denver City to curry favor with Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver.[24] Larimer hoped the town's name would help it be selected as the county seat of Arapaho County but, unbeknownst to him, Governor Denver had already resigned from office. The location was accessible to existing trails and was across the South Platte River from the site of seasonal encampments of the Cheyenne and Arapaho. The site of these first towns is now occupied by Confluence Park near downtown Denver.

Larimer, along with associates in the St. Charles City Land Company, sold parcels in the town to merchants and miners, with the intention of creating a major city that would cater to new immigrants. Denver City was a frontier town, with an economy based on servicing local miners with gambling, saloons, livestock and goods trading. In the early years, land parcels were often traded for grubstakes or gambled away by miners in Auraria.[24] In May 1859, Denver City residents donated 53 lots to the Leavenworth & Pike's Peak Express in order to secure the region's first overland wagon route. Offering daily service for "passengers, mail, freight, and gold", the Express reached Denver on a trail that trimmed westward travel time from twelve days to six. In 1863, Western Union furthered Denver's dominance of the region by choosing the city for its regional terminus.

The Colorado Territory was created on February 28, 1861,[25] Arapahoe County was formed on November 1, 1861,[25] and Denver City was incorporated on November 7, 1861.[26] Denver City served as the Arapahoe County Seat from 1861 until consolidation in 1902.[27] In 1867, Denver City became the acting territorial capital, and in 1881 was chosen as the permanent state capital in a statewide ballot. With its newfound importance, Denver City shortened its name to Denver.[27] On August 1, 1876, Colorado was admitted to the Union.

"Pioneer Mothers of Colorado" statue at The Denver Post building

Although by the close of the 1860s, Denver residents could look with pride at their success establishing a vibrant supply and service center, the decision to route the nation's first transcontinental railroad through Cheyenne, rather than Denver, threatened the prosperity of the young town. The transcontinental railroad passed a daunting 100 miles away, but citizens mobilized to build a railroad to connect Denver to it. Spearheaded by visionary leaders including Territorial Governor John Evans, David Moffat, and Walter Cheesman, fundraising began. Within three days, $300,000 had been raised, and citizens were optimistic. Fundraising stalled before enough was raised, forcing these visionary leaders to take control of the debt-ridden railroad. Despite challenges, on June 24, 1870, citizens cheered as the Denver Pacific completed the link to the transcontinental railroad, ushering in a new age of prosperity for Denver.[28]

Finally linked to the rest of the nation by rail, Denver prospered as a service and supply center. The young city grew during these years, attracting millionaires with their mansions, as well as a mixture of crime and poverty of a rapidly growing city. Denver citizens were proud when the rich chose Denver and were thrilled when Horace Tabor, the Leadville mining millionaire, built an impressive business block at 16th and Larimer, as well as the elegant Tabor Grand Opera House. Luxurious hotels, including the much-loved Brown Palace Hotel, soon followed, as well as splendid homes for millionaires, such as the Croke, Patterson, Campbell Mansion at 11th and Pennsylvania and the now-demolished Moffat Mansion at 8th and Grant.[29] Intent on transforming Denver into one of the world's great cities, leaders wooed industry and attracted laborers to work in these factories.

Soon, in addition to the elite and a large middle class, Denver had a growing population of immigrant German, Italian, and Chinese laborers, soon followed by African Americans from the Deep South and Hispanic workers. The influx of the new residents strained available housing. In addition, the Silver Crash of 1893 unsettled political, social, and economic balances. Competition among the different ethnic groups was often expressed as bigotry, and social tensions gave rise to the Red Scare. Americans were suspicious of immigrants who were sometimes allied with socialist and labor union causes. After World War I, a revival of the Ku Klux Klan attracted white native-born Americans who were anxious about the many changes in society. Unlike the earlier organization that was active in the rural South, KKK chapters developed in urban areas of the Midwest and West, including Denver, and into Idaho and Oregon. Corruption and crime also developed in Denver.[30]

Panorama print of Denver, 1898

Between 1880 and 1895 the city underwent a huge rise in corruption, as crime bosses, such as Soapy Smith, worked side by side with elected officials and the police to control elections, gambling, and bunco gangs.[31] The city also suffered a depression in 1893 after the crash of silver prices. In 1887, the precursor to the international charity United Way was formed in Denver by local religious leaders, who raised funds and coordinated various charities to help Denver's poor.[32] By 1890, Denver had grown to be the second-largest city west of Omaha, Nebraska.[33] In 1900, whites represented 96.8% of Denver's population.[34] The African American and Hispanic populations increased with migrations of the 20th century. Many African Americans first came as workers on the railroad, which had a terminus in Denver, and began to settle there.

Between the 1880s and 1930s, Denver's floriculture industry developed and thrived.[35][36] This period became known locally as the Carnation Gold Rush.[37]

A bill proposing a state constitutional amendment to allow home rule for Denver and other municipalities was introduced in the legislature in 1901 and passed. The measure called for a statewide referendum, which voters approved in 1902. On December 1 that year Governor James Orman proclaimed the amendment part of the state's fundamental law. The City and County of Denver came into being on that date and was separated from Arapahoe and Adams Counties.[8][9][38]

Early in the 20th century, Denver, like many other cities, was home to a pioneering Brass Era car company. The Colburn Automobile Company made cars copied from one of its contemporaries, Renault.[39]

From 1953 to 1989, the Rocky Flats Plant, a DOE nuclear weapon facility that was about 15 miles from Denver, produced fissile plutonium "pits" for nuclear warheads. A major fire at the facility in 1957, as well as leakage from nuclear waste stored at the site between 1958 and 1968, resulted in the contamination of some parts of Denver, to varying degrees, with plutonium-239, a harmful radioactive substance with a half-life of 24,200 years.[40] A 1981 study by the Jefferson County health director, Dr. Carl Johnson linked the contamination to an increase in birth defects and cancer incidence in central Denver and nearer Rocky Flats. Later studies confirmed many of his findings.[41][42][43] Plutonium contamination was still present outside the former plant site as of August 2010.[44] It presents risks to building the envisioned Jefferson Parkway,[45] which would complete Denver's automotive beltway.

Downtown Denver cityscape, 1964. Includes Denver's oldest church (Trinity United Methodist), first building of the Mile High Center complex, Lincoln Center, old brownstone part of the Brown Palace Hotel, and Cosmopolitan Hotel – since demolished.

In 1970, Denver was selected to host the 1976 Winter Olympics to coincide with Colorado's centennial celebration, but in November 1972, Colorado voters struck down ballot initiatives allocating public funds to pay for the high costs of the games. They were moved to Innsbruck, Austria.[46] The notoriety of becoming the only city ever to decline to host an Olympiad after being selected has made subsequent bids difficult. The movement against hosting the games was based largely on environmental issues and was led by State Representative Richard Lamm. He was subsequently elected to three terms (1975–87) as Colorado governor.[47] Denver explored a potential bid for the 2022 Winter Olympics,[48] but no bid was submitted.[49]

In 2010, Denver adopted a comprehensive update of its zoning code.[50] The new zoning was developed to guide development as envisioned in adopted plans such as Blueprint Denver,[51] Transit Oriented Development Strategic Plan, Greenprint Denver, and the Strategic Transportation Plan.

Denver has hosted the Democratic National Convention twice, in 1908 and again in 2008. It promoted the city on the national, political, and socioeconomic stage.[52] On August 10–15, 1993, Denver hosted the Catholic Church's 6th World Youth Day, which was attended by an estimated 500,000, making it the largest gathering in Colorado history.

Denver has been known historically as the Queen City of the Plains and the Queen City of the West, because of its important role in the agricultural industry of the High Plains region in eastern Colorado and along the foothills of the Colorado Front Range. Several US Navy ships have been named USS Denver in honor of the city.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Denver
አማርኛ: ደንቨር
العربية: دنفر
asturianu: Denver
azərbaycanca: Denver
تۆرکجه: دنور
bamanankan: Denver
বাংলা: ডেনভার
Bân-lâm-gú: Denver
беларуская: Дэнвер
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Дэнвэр
български: Денвър
Boarisch: Denver
bosanski: Denver
brezhoneg: Denver
català: Denver
čeština: Denver
corsu: Denver
dansk: Denver
Deutsch: Denver
eesti: Denver
Ελληνικά: Ντένβερ
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Denver
español: Denver
estremeñu: Denver
euskara: Denver
فارسی: دنور
føroyskt: Denver
français: Denver
Frysk: Denver
Gàidhlig: Denver
galego: Denver
贛語: 丹佛
한국어: 덴버
Hausa: Denver
հայերեն: Դենվեր
हिन्दी: डॅनवर
Ido: Denver
Ilokano: Denver
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: ডেনভার কাউন্টি, কলোরাডো
Bahasa Indonesia: Denver, Colorado
interlingua: Denver (Colorado)
Interlingue: Denver
Ирон: Денвер
íslenska: Denver
italiano: Denver
עברית: דנוור
Kapampangan: Denver, Colorado
ქართული: დენვერი
қазақша: Дэнвер
Kiswahili: Denver, Colorado
Kreyòl ayisyen: Denver, Kolorado
kurdî: Denver
кырык мары: Денвер (Колорадо)
Ladino: Denver
لۊری شومالی: دنور
latviešu: Denvera
lietuvių: Denveris
Ligure: Denver
lingála: Denver
македонски: Денвер
Malagasy: Denver
മലയാളം: ഡെൻവർ
मराठी: डेन्व्हर
მარგალური: დენვერი
مصرى: دينفر
Bahasa Melayu: Denver
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Denver
Mirandés: Denver
монгол: Денвер
Nederlands: Denver
नेपाल भाषा: देन्भर
日本語: デンバー
нохчийн: Денвер
norsk: Denver
norsk nynorsk: Denver
Novial: Denver
occitan: Denver
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Denver
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਡੈਨਵਰ
पालि: डेन्भर
پنجابی: ڈینور
پښتو: ډنور
Piemontèis: Denver
Plattdüütsch: Denver
polski: Denver
português: Denver
română: Denver
русский: Денвер
саха тыла: Денвер
संस्कृतम्: डेन्वर्
sardu: Denver
Scots: Denver
shqip: Denver
sicilianu: Denver
Simple English: Denver
slovenčina: Denver
slovenščina: Denver, Kolorado
ślůnski: Denver
Soomaaliga: Denver
Sranantongo: Denver
српски / srpski: Денвер
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Denver, Colorado
suomi: Denver
svenska: Denver
தமிழ்: டென்வர்
Taqbaylit: Denver
татарча/tatarça: Денвер
తెలుగు: డెన్వర్
Tsetsêhestâhese: Denver
Türkçe: Denver
Twi: Denwer
українська: Денвер
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Dénwér
vèneto: Denver
vepsän kel’: Denver
Tiếng Việt: Denver
Winaray: Denver
ייִדיש: דענווער
Yorùbá: Denver
粵語: 丹佛
Zazaki: Denver
žemaitėška: Denverės
中文: 丹佛