Democracy

A person casts vote in the second round of the 2007 French presidential election.

Democracy (Greek: δημοκρατία dēmokratía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses—all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting. In a direct democracy, the citizens as a whole form a governing body and vote directly on each issue. In a representative democracy the citizens elect representatives from among themselves. These representatives meet to form a governing body, such as a legislature. In a constitutional democracy the powers of the majority are exercised within the framework of a representative democracy, but the constitution limits the majority and protects the minority, usually through the enjoyment by all of certain individual rights, e.g. freedom of speech, or freedom of association.[1][2] "Rule of the majority" is sometimes referred to as democracy.[3] Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do, but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes.

The uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy, which makes all forces struggle repeatedly for the realization of their interests, being the devolution of power from a group of people to a set of rules.[4] Western democracy, as distinct from that which existed in pre-modern societies, is generally considered to have originated in city-states such as Classical Athens and the Roman Republic, where various schemes and degrees of enfranchisement of the free male population were observed before the form disappeared in the West at the beginning of late antiquity. The English word dates back to the 16th century, from the older Middle French and Middle Latin equivalents.

According to American political scientist Larry Diamond, democracy consists of four key elements: a political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections; the active participation of the people, as citizens, in politics and civic life; protection of the human rights of all citizens; a rule of law, in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens.[5] Todd Landman, nevertheless, draws our attention to the fact that democracy and human rights are two different concepts and that "there must be greater specificity in the conceptualisation and operationalization of democracy and human rights".[6]

The term appeared in the 5th century BC to denote the political systems then existing in Greek city-states, notably Athens, to mean "rule of the people", in contrast to aristocracy (ἀριστοκρατία, aristokratía), meaning "rule of an elite". While theoretically these definitions are in opposition, in practice the distinction has been blurred historically.[7] The political system of Classical Athens, for example, granted democratic citizenship to free men and excluded slaves and women from political participation. In virtually all democratic governments throughout ancient and modern history, democratic citizenship consisted of an elite class, until full enfranchisement was won for all adult citizens in most modern democracies through the suffrage movements of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Democracy contrasts with forms of government where power is either held by an individual, as in an absolute monarchy, or where power is held by a small number of individuals, as in an oligarchy. Nevertheless, these oppositions, inherited from Greek philosophy,[8] are now ambiguous because contemporary governments have mixed democratic, oligarchic and monarchic elements. Karl Popper defined democracy in contrast to dictatorship or tyranny, thus focusing on opportunities for the people to control their leaders and to oust them without the need for a revolution.[9]

Characteristics

  Most democratic (closest to 10)
  Least democratic (closest to 0)
Democracy's de facto status in the world as of 2017, according to Democracy Index by The Economist[10]
Democracy's de jure status in the world as of 2018; only Saudi Arabia, Oman, the UAE, Brunei, Fiji, and the Vatican officially admit to be undemocratic

No consensus exists on how to define democracy, but legal equality, political freedom and rule of law have been identified as important characteristics.[11][12] These principles are reflected in all eligible citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to legislative processes.[citation needed] For example, in a representative democracy, every vote has equal weight, no unreasonable restrictions can apply to anyone seeking to become a representative,[according to whom?] and the freedom of its eligible citizens is secured by legitimised rights and liberties which are typically protected by a constitution.[13][14] Other uses of "democracy" include that of direct democracy.

One theory holds that democracy requires three fundamental principles: upward control (sovereignty residing at the lowest levels of authority), political equality, and social norms by which individuals and institutions only consider acceptable acts that reflect the first two principles of upward control and political equality.[15]

The term "democracy" is sometimes used as shorthand for liberal democracy, which is a variant of representative democracy that may include elements such as political pluralism; equality before the law; the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances; due process; civil liberties; human rights; and elements of civil society outside the government.[citation needed] Roger Scruton argues that democracy alone cannot provide personal and political freedom unless the institutions of civil society are also present.[16]

In some countries, notably in the United Kingdom which originated the Westminster system, the dominant principle is that of parliamentary sovereignty, while maintaining judicial independence.[17][18] In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a central attribute. In India, parliamentary sovereignty is subject to the Constitution of India which includes judicial review.[19] Though the term "democracy" is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles also are applicable to private organisations.

Majority rule is often listed as a characteristic of democracy. Hence, democracy allows for political minorities to be oppressed by the "tyranny of the majority" in the absence of legal protections of individual or group rights. An essential part of an "ideal" representative democracy is competitive elections that are substantively and procedurally "fair," i.e., just and equitable. In some countries, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and internet democracy are considered important to ensure that voters are well informed, enabling them to vote according to their own interests.[20][21]

It has also been suggested that a basic feature of democracy is the capacity of all voters to participate freely and fully in the life of their society.[22] With its emphasis on notions of social contract and the collective will of all the voters, democracy can also be characterised as a form of political collectivism because it is defined as a form of government in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in lawmaking.[23]

While representative democracy is sometimes equated with the republican form of government, the term "republic" classically has encompassed both democracies and aristocracies.[24][25] Many democracies are constitutional monarchies, such as the United Kingdom.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Demokrasie
Alemannisch: Demokratie
አማርኛ: ዴሞክራሲ
العربية: ديمقراطية
aragonés: Democracia
অসমীয়া: গণতন্ত্ৰ
asturianu: Democracia
Avañe'ẽ: Jekopytyjoja
azərbaycanca: Demokratiya
تۆرکجه: دئموکراسی
বাংলা: গণতন্ত্র
Bân-lâm-gú: Bîn-chú
башҡортса: Демократия
беларуская: Дэмакратыя
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Дэмакратыя
भोजपुरी: लोकतंत्र
български: Демокрация
Boarisch: Demokratie
bosanski: Demokratija
brezhoneg: Demokratelezh
буряад: Арадшалал
català: Democràcia
Cebuano: Demokrasya
čeština: Demokracie
chiShona: Gutsaruzhinji
Cymraeg: Democratiaeth
dansk: Demokrati
Deutsch: Demokratie
ދިވެހިބަސް: ޑިމޮކްރަސީ
Ελληνικά: Δημοκρατία
español: Democracia
Esperanto: Demokratio
euskara: Demokrazia
فارسی: دموکراسی
Fiji Hindi: Prajatantr
føroyskt: Fólkaræði
français: Démocratie
Frysk: Demokrasy
Gaeilge: Daonlathas
Gàidhlig: Deamocrasaidh
galego: Democracia
Gĩkũyũ: Ndemookirathĩ
ગુજરાતી: લોકશાહી
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Mìn-tsú Tsú-ngi
한국어: 민주주의
हिन्दी: लोकतंत्र
hrvatski: Demokracija
Ilokano: Demokrasia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: গণতন্ত্র
Bahasa Indonesia: Demokrasi
interlingua: Democratia
Interlingue: Democratie
isiXhosa: I-Democracy
íslenska: Lýðræði
italiano: Democrazia
עברית: דמוקרטיה
Basa Jawa: Dhémokrasi
Kabɩyɛ: Temokraasii
kalaallisut: Demokrati
къарачай-малкъар: Демократия
ქართული: დემოკრატია
қазақша: Демократия
Kiswahili: Demokrasia
Kongo: Dimokalasi
Kreyòl ayisyen: Demokrasi
kurdî: Demokrasî
Кыргызча: Демократия
Latina: Democratia
latviešu: Demokrātija
lietuvių: Demokratija
Ligure: Democraçia
Limburgs: Democratie
lingála: Demokrasi
Lingua Franca Nova: Democratia
Livvinkarjala: Rahvahanvaldu
la .lojban.: roltrusi'o
lumbaart: Democrazia
मैथिली: लोकतन्त्र
македонски: Демократија
Malagasy: Demokrasia
മലയാളം: ജനാധിപത്യം
मराठी: लोकशाही
მარგალური: დემოკრატია
مازِرونی: دموکراسی
Bahasa Melayu: Demokrasi
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Mìng-ciō
Mirandés: Democracie
монгол: Ардчилал
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဒီမိုကရေစီ
Nederlands: Democratie
नेपाली: लोकतन्त्र
नेपाल भाषा: लोकतन्त्र
日本語: 民主主義
norsk: Demokrati
norsk nynorsk: Folkestyre
occitan: Democracia
олык марий: Демократий
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Demokratiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਲੋਕਰਾਜ
Pälzisch: Demokratie
پنجابی: لوک راج
Papiamentu: Demokrasia
پښتو: ولسواکي
Patois: Dimakrasi
ភាសាខ្មែរ: ប្រជាធិបតេយ្យ
Piemontèis: Democrassìa
Plattdüütsch: Demokratie
polski: Demokracja
português: Democracia
Ripoarisch: Demokratie
română: Democrație
Runa Simi: Llaqta kallpay
русиньскый: Демокрація
русский: Демократия
саха тыла: Демократия
संस्कृतम्: प्रजातन्त्रम्
Scots: Democracy
Seeltersk: Demokratie
Sesotho sa Leboa: Temokrasi
shqip: Demokracia
sicilianu: Dimucrazzìa
Simple English: Democracy
سنڌي: جمھوريت
slovenčina: Demokracia
slovenščina: Demokracija
Soomaaliga: Dimoqraadi
کوردی: دیموکراسی
српски / srpski: Демократија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Demokracija
Basa Sunda: Démokrasi
suomi: Demokratia
svenska: Demokrati
Tagalog: Demokrasya
татарча/tatarça: Демократия
ትግርኛ: ዲሞክራሲ
тоҷикӣ: Демократия
Türkçe: Demokrasi
Türkmençe: Demokratiýa
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Agɛmkɔckedhiɛ
українська: Демократія
اردو: جمہوریت
Vahcuengh: Minzcuj
vèneto: Democrasia
Tiếng Việt: Dân chủ
文言: 民主
Winaray: Demokrasya
Xitsonga: Demokhrasi
ייִדיש: דעמאקראטיע
粵語: 民主
Zazaki: Demokrasiye
žemaitėška: Demuokratėjė
中文: 民主