Cleisthenes' reforms and its modifications
First period: 508 – 307/306 BC
The division of Athens city-state into urban (pink), inland (green), and coastal (blue) zones by Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes divided the landscape in three zones—urban (asty), coastal (paralia) and inland (mesogeia)—and the 139 demes were organized into 30 groups called trittyes ("thirds"), ten for each of the zones and into ten tribes, or phyle, each composed of three trittyes, one from the coast, one from the city, and one from the inland area.
Cleisthenes also reorganized the Boule, created with 400 members under Solon, so that it had 500 members, 50 from each tribe, each deme having a fixed quota.
The ten tribes were named after legendary heroes and came to have an official order:
- Erechtheis (Ἐρεχθηΐς) named after Erechtheus
- Aigeis (Αἰγηΐς) named after Aegeus
- Pandionis (Πανδιονίς) named after Pandion
- Leontis (Λεοντίς) named after Leos, son of Orpheus
- Acamantis (Ἀκαμαντίς) named after Acamas
Oineis (Οἰνηΐς) named after Oeneus
Kekropis (Κεκροπίς) named after Cécrops
Hippothontis (or Hippothoontis) (Ἱπποθοντίς) named after Hippothoon
- Aiantis (Αἰαντίς) named after Ajax
- Antiochis (Ἀντιοχίς) named after Antiochus, son of Heracles
Second period: 307/306 – 224/223 BC
In 307/306 – 224/223 BC the system was reorganized creating the two Macedonian Phylai (XI.
Antigonis and XII.
Demetrias), named after Demetrius I of Macedon and Antigonus I Monophthalmus, and increasing the Boule to 600 members. Each of the ten tribes, except Aiantis, provide 3 demes (not necessarily one for trittyes); the missing contribution of Aiantis is covered by two demes of Leontis and 1 from Aigeis.
In connection the contribution of each village to the Boule is properly adapted.
Third period: 224/223 – 201/200 BC
The Egyptian Phyle XIII.
Ptolemais, named after Ptolemy III Euergetes is created in 224/223 BC and the Boule increases to 600 members, the twelve tribes giving each a demos; moreover a new village is creatied and named Berenikidai, after Ptolemy's wife Berenice II of Egypt.
Fourth period: 201/200 BC – 126/127 AD
In 201/200 BC the Macedonian Phylae are dissolved and the villages (except the two given to Ptolemais) go back to the original tribe. Moreover, in spring 200 BC the tribe XIV.
Attalis, named after Attalus I, is created following the same scheme used for the creation of the Egyptian Phyle: each tribe contributes a deme and a new deme, Apollonieis, is created in honour of Apollonis, wife of Attalus I of Pergamum.
As a consequence we have again 12 tribeas and 600 members of the Boule.
From this period there are no more quotas assigned to the demes for the 50 Boule members of each tribe
Fifth period: 126/127 – third century
The last modification is the creation in 126/127 of XV.
Hadrianis, named after Hadrian following the same scheme: each tribe contributes a deme and a new deme, Antinoeis is created in honour of Hadrian's favorite, Antinous.
More over each tribe contributes 40 members to the Boule.