Deep South

Approximate geographic definition of the Deep South and the greater Southern United States. The Deep South is consistently thought to include most or all of the states shown in red and extend into portions of those in orange. While the Census Bureau considers those in yellow to be part of the South, they are not typically attached to the Deep South geographic label.

The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States. Historically, it was differentiated as those states most dependent on plantations and slave societies during the pre-Civil War period. The Deep South is commonly referred to as the Cotton States, given that the production of cotton was a primary cash crop.[1][2]


Geographic range of the Black Belt

The term "Deep South" is defined in a variety of ways:

  • Most definitions include the states Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, Mississippi, and Louisiana.[3]
  • Texas is sometimes included,[4] due to its history of slavery and as being a part of the Confederate States of America. The eastern part of the state is the westernmost extension of the Deep South.[3]
  • Arkansas is sometimes included[4][5] or else considered "in the Peripheral or Rim South rather than the Deep South."[6]
  • North Florida is also a part of the Deep South region.
  • The seven states that seceded from the United States before the firing on Fort Sumter and the start of the American Civil War, and who originally formed the Confederate States of America. In order of secession they are: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. The first six states to secede were those that held the largest number of slaves. Ultimately the Confederacy included eleven states.
  • A large part of the original "Cotton Belt". This was considered to extend from eastern North Carolina to South Carolina and through the Gulf States as far west as East Texas, and including those parts of western Tennessee and eastern Arkansas in the Mississippi embayment.[7] Some of this is coterminous with the Black Belt, originally referring to upland areas of Alabama and Mississippi with fertile soil, which were developed for cotton under slave labor. The term came to be used for much of the Cotton Belt, which had a high percentage of African-American slave labor.
Other Languages
Afrikaans: Deep South
беларуская: Глыбокі Поўдзень
català: Deep South
Deutsch: Deep South
Ελληνικά: Βαθύς Νότος
español: Deep South
Esperanto: Profunda Sudo
euskara: Deep South
فارسی: جنوب عمیق
français: Sud profond
galego: Deep South
한국어: 디프사우스
italiano: Profondo Sud
norsk: Deep South
português: Deep South
русский: Глубокий Юг
slovenčina: Deep South
svenska: Djupa Södern
Türkçe: Derin Güney
українська: Глибокий Південь
Tiếng Việt: Thâm Nam Hoa Kỳ