Darfur

Darfur

دار فور
Location of Darfur
CapitalAl-Fashir
Official languagesArabic, Fur
Demonym(s)Darfuri, Darfurian and Darfurese
Area
• Total
493,180 km2 (190,420 sq mi)
Population
• 2017 estimate
9,241,369
• Density
18.7/km2 (48.4/sq mi)
CurrencySudanese Pound
Time zoneUTC+2:00 (EAT)

Darfur (Arabic: دار فورDār Fūr, English: "Realm of the Fur") is a region in western Sudan. It was named Dardaju (Arabic: دار داجو‎) while ruled by the Daju, who migrated from Meroë c. 350 AD; it was then renamed Dartunjur (Arabic: دار تنجر‎) when the Tunjur ruled the area. (Dar is an Arabic word meaning home of.) Darfur was an independent sultanate for several hundred years,[1] incorporated into Sudan by Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1916. The region is divided into five federal states: Central Darfur, East Darfur, North Darfur, South Darfur and West Darfur. Because of the war in Darfur between Sudanese government forces and the indigenous population, the region has been in a state of humanitarian emergency since 2003.

The First historical mention of the word 'Fur' occurs in 1664 in the account by J. M. Vansleb, a traveler, of a visit to Egypt (Petermann (1862-3). Mittheilungen, Erganzungsband II). 'Fur' apparently, like 'Sudan', means 'blacks'; and was the name given by the early light-colored Berber sultans of Darfur to the original inhabitants of the country such as the Binga, Banda etc., who agreed to become Muslim and submit to the sultan's rule, the alternative being to be attacked and either killed or enslaved. As the historic dynasty's physical appearance became more "Africanized" from intermarriage with black wives and concubines, the appearance of the sultans darkened correspondingly and they became known by the appellation of their black subjects, 'Fur'.[2]

Geography

Darfur covers an area of 493,180 square kilometers (190,420 sq mi),[3] approximately the size of mainland Spain.[4][5][6] It is largely an arid plateau with the Marrah Mountains (Jebel Marra), a range of volcanic peaks rising up to 3,042 meters (9,980 ft) of topographic prominence,[7] in the center of the region. The region's main towns are Al Fashir and Nyala.

There are four main features of its physical geography. The whole eastern half of Darfur is covered with plains and low hills of sandy soils, known as goz, and sandstone hills. In many places the goz is waterless and can only be inhabited where there are water reservoirs or deep boreholes. While dry, goz may also support rich pasture and arable land. To the north the goz is overtaken by the desert sands of the Sahara. A second feature are the wadis, which range from seasonal watercourses that flood only occasionally during the wet season to large wadis that flood for most of the rains and flow from western Darfur hundreds of kilometres west to Lake Chad. Many wadis have pans of alluvium with rich heavy soil that are also difficult to cultivate. Western Darfur is dominated by the third feature, basement rock, sometimes covered with a thin layer of sandy soil. Basement rock is too infertile to be farmed, but provides sporadic forest cover that can be grazed by animals. The fourth and final feature are the Marrah Mountains and Daju Hills, volcanic plugs created by a massif, that rise up to a peak at Deriba crater where there is a small area of temperate climate, high rainfall and permanent springs of water.

Deriba Crater is at the highest point of the Marrah Mountains

Remote sensing has detected the imprint of a vast underground lake under Darfur. The potential water deposits are estimated at 49,500 km2 (19,110 sq mi). The lake, during epochs when the region was more humid, would have contained about 2,500 km3 (600 cubic miles) of water.[8] It may have dried up thousands of years ago.[9]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Darfoer
العربية: دارفور
asturianu: Darfur
azərbaycanca: Darfur regionu
বাংলা: দারফুর
Bân-lâm-gú: Darfur
беларуская: Дарфур
български: Дарфур
bosanski: Darfur
català: Darfur
čeština: Dárfúr
dansk: Darfur
Deutsch: Darfur
eesti: Darfur
Ελληνικά: Νταρφούρ
español: Darfur
Esperanto: Darfuro
euskara: Darfur
فارسی: دارفور
français: Darfour
Gaeilge: Darfur
galego: Darfur
한국어: 다르푸르
hrvatski: Darfur
Bahasa Indonesia: Darfur
íslenska: Darfúr
italiano: Darfur
עברית: דארפור
Kiswahili: Darfur
kurdî: Darfûr
latviešu: Dārfūra
lietuvių: Darfūras
magyar: Dárfúr
македонски: Дарфур
മലയാളം: ഡാർഫർ
مصرى: دارفور
مازِرونی: دارفور
Bahasa Melayu: Darfur
Nederlands: Darfur (regio)
日本語: ダルフール
norsk: Darfur
norsk nynorsk: Darfur
occitan: Darfor
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਦਾਰਫ਼ੂਰ
پنجابی: دارفر
polski: Darfur
português: Darfur
română: Darfur
Scots: Darfur
sicilianu: Darfur
Simple English: Darfur
slovenščina: Darfur
کوردی: دارفوور
српски / srpski: Дарфур
suomi: Darfur
svenska: Darfur
Tagalog: Darfur
தமிழ்: தார்பூர்
Türkçe: Darfur
українська: Дарфур
اردو: دارفور
vèneto: Darfur
Tiếng Việt: Darfur
Winaray: Darfur
ייִדיש: דארפור
Zazaki: Darfur
中文: 達爾富爾