Damascus

Damascus

دمشق  (Arabic)
ܕܪܡܣܘܩ  (Syriac)
City
Umayyad Mosque General view of Damascus • Mount Qasioun Maktab Anbar • Azm Palace Tekkiye Mosque
Official seal of Damascus
Flag and Seal
Nicknames: 
City of Jasmine (مدينة الياسمين)
Al-Fayhaa (الفيحاء)[note 1]
Damascus is located in Syria
Damascus
Damascus
Location of Damascus within Syria
Damascus is located in Asia
Damascus
Damascus
Damascus (Asia)
Coordinates: 33°30′47″N 36°17′31″E / 33°30′47″N 36°17′31″E / 33.51306; 36.29194
Official nameAncient City of Damascus
TypeCultural
Criteriai, ii, iii, iv, vi
Designated1979 (3rd 20
State PartySyria
RegionArab States

Damascus (s/; Arabic: دمشق‎, romanizedDimašq [diˈmaʃq], Syrian Arabic: [dɪˈmaʃʔ], French: Damas) is the capital of Syria; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city. It is colloquially known in Syria as aš-Šām (الشام) and titled the "City of Jasmine" (مدينة الياسمين Madīnat al-Yāsmīn). Damascus is a major cultural center of the Levant and the Arab world. The city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 as of 2009.[3]

Located in south-western Syria, Damascus is the center of a large metropolitan area of 2.7 million people (2004).[5] Geographically embedded on the eastern foothills of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range 80 kilometres (50 mi) inland from the eastern shore of the Mediterranean on a plateau 680 metres (2,230 ft) above sea level, Damascus experiences a semi-arid climate because of the rain shadow effect. The Barada River flows through Damascus.

First settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad. Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. Today, it is the seat of the central government and all of the government ministries. As of September 2019, 8 years since the start of the Syrian Civil War, Damascus has been named the world's least livable city by the Economist Intelligence Unit.[6]

Names and etymology

The name of Damascus first appeared in the geographical list of Thutmose III as 𓍘𓄟𓊃𓈎𓅱/𓍘𓄟𓈎𓅱𓈉 T-m-ś-q in the 15th century BC.[7] The etymology of the ancient name "T-m-ś-q" is uncertain. It is attested as 𒀲𒋙 Imerišú in Akkadian, 𓍘𓄠𓈎𓅱 T-m-ś-q in Egyptian, Dammaśq (דמשק) in Old Aramaic and Dammeśeq (דמשק) in Biblical Hebrew. A number of Akkadian spellings are found in the Amarna letters, from the 14th century BC: 𒁲𒈦𒋡 Dimasqa, 𒁲𒈦𒀸𒄀 Dimàsqì, and 𒁲𒈦𒀸𒋡 Dimàsqa. Later Aramaic spellings of the name often include an intrusive resh (letter r), perhaps influenced by the root dr, meaning "dwelling". Thus, the English and Latin name of the city is "Damascus" which was imported from (Greek: Δαμασκός) originated from "the Qumranic Darmeśeq (דרמשק), and Darmsûq (ܕܪܡܣܘܩ) in Syriac[8][9]", meaning "a well-watered land".[10] In Arabic, the city is called Dimašqu š-Šāmi (دمشق الشام), although this is often shortened to either Dimašq or aš-Šām by the citizens of Damascus, of Syria and other Arab neighbors and Turkey (as Şam). Aš-Šām is an Arabic term for "Levant" and for "Syria"; the latter, and particularly the historical region of Syria, is called Bilādu š-Šāmi (بلاد الشام / "land of the Levant"). Historically, Baalshamin or Ba'al Šamem (Aramaic: ܒܥܠ ܫܡܝܢ‎, romanized: Lord of Heaven(s)),[11][12] was a Semitic sky-god in Canaan/Phoenicia and ancient Palmyra.[13][14] Hence, Sham refers to (heaven or sky).

Other Languages
Acèh: Dimasq
Адыгэбзэ: Дамаск
адыгабзэ: Дамаск
Afrikaans: Damaskus
Alemannisch: Damaskus
አማርኛ: ደማስቆ
العربية: دمشق
aragonés: Domás
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܕܪܡܣܘܩ
arpetan: Damas
অসমীয়া: ডামাস্কাছ
asturianu: Damascu
Avañe'ẽ: Ndamáko
авар: Димишкъ
azərbaycanca: Dəməşq
تۆرکجه: دمشق
Bali: Damaskus
বাংলা: দামেস্ক
Banjar: Damsyik
Bân-lâm-gú: Damascus
башҡортса: Дамаск
беларуская: Дамаск
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Дамаск
Bikol Central: Damascus
български: Дамаск
bosanski: Damask
brezhoneg: Damask
буряад: Дамаск
català: Damasc
Чӑвашла: Дамаск
Cebuano: Damascus
čeština: Damašek
Chi-Chewa: Damascus
chiShona: Damascus
Cymraeg: Damascus
dansk: Damaskus
Deutsch: Damaskus
ދިވެހިބަސް: ދިމިޝްޤު
eesti: Damaskus
Ελληνικά: Δαμασκός
эрзянь: Дамаск ош
español: Damasco
Esperanto: Damasko
estremeñu: Damascu
euskara: Damasko
فارسی: دمشق
Fiji Hindi: Damascus
français: Damas
Frysk: Damaskus
Gaeilge: An Damaisc
Gàidhlig: Damascus
galego: Damasco
ГӀалгӀай: Дамаск
Gĩkũyũ: Damascus
گیلکی: دمشق
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌳𐌰𐌼𐌰𐍃𐌺𐍉
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Damascus
한국어: 다마스쿠스
Hawaiʻi: Kamakeko
հայերեն: Դամասկոս
Արեւմտահայերէն: Դամասկոս
हिन्दी: दमिश्क
hornjoserbsce: Damask
hrvatski: Damask
Ilokano: Damascus
Bahasa Indonesia: Damaskus
interlingua: Damasco
Interlingue: Damascus
Ирон: Дамаск
íslenska: Damaskus
italiano: Damasco
עברית: דמשק
Jawa: Damaskus
Kabɩyɛ: Tamasɩ
kalaallisut: Damascus
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಡಮಾಸ್ಕಸ್
ქართული: დამასკო
қазақша: Дамаск
kernowek: Damask
Kinyarwanda: Damasiko
Kiswahili: Dameski
Kreyòl ayisyen: Damas
kurdî: Şam
Кыргызча: Дамаск
Ladino: Damesek
لۊری شومالی: دمشق
Latina: Damascus
latviešu: Damaska
Lëtzebuergesch: Damaskus
лезги: Дамаск
lietuvių: Damaskas
Ligure: Damasco
Limburgs: Damascus
lingála: Damas
Livvinkarjala: Damask
lumbaart: Damasch
magyar: Damaszkusz
македонски: Дамаск
Malagasy: Damaskosy
മലയാളം: ദമാസ്കസ്
मराठी: दमास्कस
მარგალური: დამასკო
مصرى: دمشق
مازِرونی: دمشق
Bahasa Melayu: Damsyik
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dâi-mā-sáik
монгол: Дамаск
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဒမားစကပ်မြို့
Nāhuatl: Damasco
Nederlands: Damascus
नेपाली: दमास्कस
नेपाल भाषा: दमास्कस
日本語: ダマスカス
нохчийн: Димашкъ
Nordfriisk: Damaskus
norsk: Damaskus
norsk nynorsk: Damaskus
Novial: Damaskus
occitan: Damasc
олык марий: Дамаск
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: ଡାମାସକସ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Damashq
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਦਮਸ਼ਕ
پنجابی: دمشق
Papiamentu: Damasco
پښتو: د مشق
Picard: Damasch
Piemontèis: Damasch
polski: Damaszek
português: Damasco
Qaraqalpaqsha: Damashq
română: Damasc
Runa Simi: Dimashq
русиньскый: Дамаск
русский: Дамаск
саха тыла: Дамаскус
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱰᱟᱢᱟᱥᱠᱚᱥ
sardu: Damasco
Scots: Damascus
shqip: Damasku
sicilianu: Damascu
සිංහල: දමස්කස්
Simple English: Damascus
slovenčina: Damask
slovenščina: Damask
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Дамаскъ
ślůnski: Damaszek
Soomaaliga: Dimishiq
کوردی: دیمەشق
српски / srpski: Дамаск
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Damask
suomi: Damaskos
svenska: Damaskus
Tagalog: Damasco
தமிழ்: திமிஷ்கு
Taqbaylit: Dimecq
tarandíne: Damasche
татарча/tatarça: Dimäşq
тоҷикӣ: Димишқ
Türkçe: Şam
Türkmençe: Damask
українська: Дамаск
اردو: دمشق
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: دەمەشىق
vepsän kel’: Damask
Tiếng Việt: Damascus
Volapük: Dimäjk
文言: 大馬士革
Winaray: Damasko
吴语: 大马士革
ייִדיש: דמשק
Yorùbá: Dàmáskù
粵語: 大馬士革
Zazaki: Şam
žemaitėška: Damaskos
中文: 大马士革