Dallas

Dallas, Texas
City of Dallas
Top to bottom, left to right: Downtown, Old Red Museum, NorthPark Center, City Hall, Dallas Museum of Art, Winspear Opera House, Perot Museum of Nature and Science, State Fair of Texas at Fair Park, Dallas Union Station, the Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden, the American Airlines Center
Flag of Dallas, Texas
Flag
Official seal of Dallas, Texas
Seal
Nicknames: 
Big D, D-Town, America's City
Location within Dallas County
Location within Dallas County
Map of the U.S.
Map of the U.S.
Dallas
Location within Texas
Map of the U.S.
Map of the U.S.
Dallas
Location within the United States
Map of the U.S.
Map of the U.S.
Dallas
Location within North America
Coordinates: 32°47′N 96°48′W / 32°47′N 96°48′W / 32.783; -96.800UTC−5 (Central)
ZIP Codes
Area codes214, 469, 972, 682, 817[4][5]
FIPS code48-19000[6]
GNIS feature ID1380944[7]
Primary AirportDallas/Fort Worth International Airport
Secondary AirportDallas Love Field
InterstatesI-20 (TX).svg I-30 (TX).svg I-45 (TX).svg
I-35E (TX).svg I-345 (TX).svg I-635 (TX).svg
U.S. RoutesUS 67.svg US 75.svg US 77.svg US 80.svg US 175.svg
Commuter RailTrinity Railway Express
Rapid Transitdallascityhall.com

Dallas (s/) is a city in the U.S. state of Texas. With an estimated 2017 population of 1,341,075,[8] it is the ninth most-populous city in the U.S.[9] and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio.[10] Dallas is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States and the largest inland metropolitan area in the U.S. that lacks any navigable link to the sea.[11] It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the country at 7.3 million people as of 2017.[12] Dallas is the seat of Dallas County. Sections of the city extend into Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall counties.

Dallas and nearby Fort Worth initially developed due to the construction of major railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton, cattle, and later oil in North and East Texas. The construction of the Interstate Highway System reinforced Dallas's prominence as a transportation hub, with four major interstate highways converging in the city and a fifth interstate loop around it. Dallas then developed as a strong industrial and financial center and a major inland port, due to the convergence of major railroad lines, interstate highways, and the construction of Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world.[13]

Dallas is rated a "beta(+)" global city. The economy of Dallas is considered diverse, with dominant sectors including defense, financial services, information technology, telecommunications, and transportation.[14] It serves as the headquarters for 9 Fortune 500 companies within the city limits. The Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex hosts additional Fortune 500 companies, including American Airlines (Fort Worth), ExxonMobil (Irving), and J.C. Penney (Plano). The city has a population from a myriad of ethnic and religious backgrounds and the sixth-largest LGBT population in the United States.[15]

History

Elm Street at night, January 1942

Pre-colonial settlement

Preceded by thousands of years of varying cultures, the Caddo people inhabited the Dallas area before Spanish colonists claimed the territory of Texas in the 18th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, France also claimed the area but never established much settlement.

In 1819, the Adams-Onís Treaty between the United States and Spain defined the Red River as the northern boundary of New Spain, officially placing the future location of Dallas well within Spanish territory.[16] The area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, and the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, Texians, with a majority of Anglo-American settlers, gained independence from Mexico and formed the Republic of Texas.[17]

Settlement and development

In 1839, John Neely Bryan surveyed the area around present-day Dallas.[18] He established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841. The origin of the name is uncertain. The official historical marker states it was named after Vice President George M. Dallas of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. However, this is disputed. Other potential theories for the origin include his brother, Commodore Alexander James Dallas, as well as brothers Walter R. Dallas or James R. Dallas.[19][20] A further theory gives the origin as the village of Dallas, Moray, Scotland, similar to the way Houston, Texas was named after Sam Houston whose ancestors came from the Scottish village of Houston, Renfrewshire. The Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1856.[13]

With the construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and was booming by the end of the 19th century. It became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South, and the Midwest.

20th and 21st centuries

The Praetorian Building of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and the tallest building in Texas for some time. It marked the prominence of Dallas as a city. A racetrack for thoroughbreds was built and their owners established the Dallas Jockey Club. Trotters raced at a track in Fort Worth, where a similar drivers club was based. The rapid expansion of population increased competition for jobs and housing.

In 1921, the Mexican president Álvaro Obregón along with the former revolutionary general visited Downtown Dallas's Mexican Park in Little Mexico; the small park was on the corner of Akard and Caruth Street, site of the current Fairmount Hotel.[21] The small neighborhood of Little Mexico was home to a Hispanic population that had been drawn to Dallas by factors including the American Dream, better living conditions, and the Mexican Revolution.[citation needed]

On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Elm Street while his motorcade passed through Dealey Plaza in Downtown Dallas. The upper two floors of the building from which alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot Kennedy, the Texas School Book Depository, have been converted into a historical museum covering the former president's life and accomplishments.

On July 7, 2016, multiple shots were fired at a peaceful protest in Downtown Dallas, held against the police killings of two black men from other states. The gunman, later identified as Micah Xavier Johnson, began firing at police officers at 8:58 p.m., killing five officers and injuring nine. Two bystanders were also injured. This marked the deadliest day for U.S. law enforcement since the September 11 attacks. Johnson told police during a standoff that he was upset about recent police shootings of black men and wanted to kill whites, especially white officers. After hours of negotiation failed, police resorted to a robot-delivered bomb, killing Johnson inside El Centro College. The shooting occurred in an area of hotels, restaurants, businesses, and residential apartments only a few blocks away from Dealey Plaza.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Dallas
Alemannisch: Dallas
አማርኛ: ዳላስ
العربية: دالاس (تكساس)
aragonés: Dallas
asturianu: Dallas
azərbaycanca: Dallas
تۆرکجه: دالاس
bamanankan: Dallas
বাংলা: ডালাস
Bân-lâm-gú: Dallas
беларуская: Далас
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Далас
български: Далас
bosanski: Dallas
brezhoneg: Dallas
català: Dallas
čeština: Dallas
corsu: Dallas
Cymraeg: Dallas
dansk: Dallas
Deutsch: Dallas
डोटेली: डेलस
eesti: Dallas
Ελληνικά: Ντάλας
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Dallas
español: Dallas
Esperanto: Dallas (Teksaso)
euskara: Dallas
فارسی: دالاس
føroyskt: Dallas
français: Dallas
Gaeilge: Dallas, Texas
Gàidhlig: Dallas, Texas
贛語: 達拉斯
Gĩkũyũ: Dallas
ગુજરાતી: ડલ્લાસ
한국어: 댈러스
հայերեն: Դալաս
हिन्दी: डैलस
hornjoserbsce: Dallas
hrvatski: Dallas, Teksas
Ido: Dallas
Bahasa Indonesia: Dallas
interlingua: Dallas (Texas)
Ирон: Даллас
íslenska: Dallas
italiano: Dallas
עברית: דאלאס
Basa Jawa: Dallas
Kapampangan: Dallas, Texas
ქართული: დალასი
қазақша: Даллас
kernowek: Dallas
Kiswahili: Dallas, Texas
Kreyòl ayisyen: Dalas (Teksas)
kurdî: Dallas
Кыргызча: Даллас шаары
кырык мары: Даллас
Ladino: Dallas
Latina: Dallasium
latviešu: Dalasa
Lëtzebuergesch: Dallas
lietuvių: Dalasas
Limburgs: Dallas (Texas)
lingála: Dallas
lumbaart: Dallas
magyar: Dallas
македонски: Далас
Malagasy: Dallas
മലയാളം: ഡാളസ്
मराठी: डॅलस
მარგალური: დალასი
مصرى: دالاس
Bahasa Melayu: Dallas
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ဒါးလတ်စ်မြို့
Dorerin Naoero: Dallas
Nederlands: Dallas (Texas)
日本語: ダラス
нохчийн: Даллас
norsk: Dallas
norsk nynorsk: Dallas
occitan: Dallas
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Dallas
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਡਾਲਸ
پنجابی: ڈیلاس
Piemontèis: Dallas
polski: Dallas
português: Dallas
română: Dallas
Runa Simi: Dallas
русский: Даллас
саха тыла: Даллас
sardu: Dallas
Scots: Dallas
Seeltersk: Dallas
shqip: Dallas
sicilianu: Dallas
Simple English: Dallas
slovenčina: Dallas
slovenščina: Dallas, Teksas
ślůnski: Dallas
Soomaaliga: Dallas
کوردی: داڵاس
Sranantongo: Dallas
српски / srpski: Далас
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Dallas, Texas
suomi: Dallas
svenska: Dallas
Tagalog: Dallas, Texas
தமிழ்: டாலஸ்
Taqbaylit: Dallas
татарча/tatarça: Дәлас
తెలుగు: డల్లాస్
Türkçe: Dallas
Twi: Dallas
українська: Даллас
اردو: ڈیلاس
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: Dallas
vepsän kel’: Dallas
Tiếng Việt: Dallas
Volapük: Dallas (Texas)
Winaray: Dallas
Yorùbá: Dallas
粵語: 達拉斯
中文: 達拉斯