DNA polymerase

DNA-directed DNA polymerase
DNA polymerase.png
3D structure of the DNA-binding 7ICG)
Identifiers
EC number2.7.7.7
CAS number9012-90-2
Databases
IntEnzIntEnz view
BRENDABRENDA entry
ExPASyNiceZyme view
KEGGKEGG entry
MetaCycmetabolic pathway
PRIAMprofile
PDB structuresRCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene OntologyAmiGO / QuickGO

DNA polymerase is an enzyme that synthesizes DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. These enzymes are essential for DNA replication and usually work in pairs to create two identical DNA strands from a single original DNA molecule. During this process, DNA polymerase "reads" the existing DNA strands to create two new strands that match the existing ones.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

These enzymes catalyze the following chemical reaction

deoxynucleoside triphosphate + DNAndiphosphate + DNAn+1

DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the three prime (3')-end of a DNA strand, one nucleotide at a time.

Every time a cell divides, DNA polymerases are required to help duplicate the cell's DNA, so that a copy of the original DNA molecule can be passed to each daughter cell. In this way, genetic information is passed down from generation to generation.

Before replication can take place, an enzyme called helicase unwinds the DNA molecule from its tightly woven form, in the process breaking the hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide bases. This opens up or "unzips" the double-stranded DNA to give two single strands of DNA that can be used as templates for replication.

History

In 1956, Arthur Kornberg and colleagues discovered DNA polymerase I (Pol I), in Escherichia coli. They described the DNA replication process by which DNA polymerase copies the base sequence of a template DNA strand. Kornberg was later awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1959 for this work.[7] DNA polymerase II was also discovered by Thomas Kornberg (the son of Arthur Kornberg)[8] and Malcolm E. Gefter in 1970 while further elucidating the role of Pol I in E. coli DNA replication.[9]

Other Languages
bosanski: DNK polimeraza
čeština: DNA polymeráza
Ελληνικά: DNA πολυμεράση
español: ADN polimerasa
français: ADN polymérase
한국어: DNA 중합효소
hrvatski: DNK polimeraza
Bahasa Indonesia: DNA polimerase
lietuvių: DNR polimerazė
македонски: ДНК полимераза
Nederlands: DNA-polymerase
norsk nynorsk: DNA-polymerase
português: DNA polimerase
română: ADN polimerază
Simple English: DNA polymerase
slovenčina: DNA polymeráza
slovenščina: DNK-polimeraza
српски / srpski: ДНК полимераза
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: DNK polimeraza
svenska: DNA-polymeras
Türkçe: DNA polimeraz
українська: ДНК-полімераза
Tiếng Việt: DNA polymerase
中文: DNA聚合酶