Cyrillic script

Cyrillic
Romanian Cyrillic - Lord's Prayer text.svg
Type
LanguagesNational script of: (see Languages using Cyrillic)
Time period
Earliest variants exist c.893[2]-c.940
Parent systems
Sister systems
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924Cyrl, 220
Cyrs (Old Church Slavonic variant)
Unicode alias
Cyrillic
U+1C80–U+1C8F Cyrillic Extended-C

The Cyrillic script k/ is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia, particularly in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia. It is based on the Early Cyrillic alphabet developed during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School in the First Bulgarian Empire.[4][5][6] It is the basis of alphabets used in various languages, especially those of Orthodox Slavic origin, and non-Slavic languages influenced by Russian. As of 2011, around 252 million people in Eurasia use it as the official alphabet for their national languages, with Russia accounting for about half of them.[7] With the accession of Bulgaria to the European Union on 1 January 2007, Cyrillic became the third official script of the European Union, following Latin and Greek.[8]

Cyrillic is derived from the Greek uncial script, augmented by letters from the older Glagolitic alphabet, including some ligatures. These additional letters were used for Old Church Slavonic sounds not found in Greek. The script is named in honor of the two Byzantine brothers,[9] Saints Cyril and Methodius, who created the Glagolitic alphabet earlier on. Modern scholars believe that Cyrillic was developed and formalized by early disciples of Cyril and Methodius.

In the early 18th century, the Cyrillic script used in Russia was heavily reformed by Peter the Great, who had recently returned from his Grand Embassy in western Europe. The new letterforms became closer to those of the Latin alphabet; several archaic letters were removed and several letters were personally designed by Peter the Great (such as Я, which was inspired by the Latin R). West European typography culture was also adopted.[10]

Letters

Cyrillic script spread throughout the East Slavic and some South Slavic territories, being adopted for writing local languages, such as Old East Slavic. Its adaptation to local languages produced a number of Cyrillic alphabets, discussed hereafter.

The early Cyrillic alphabet[11][12]
А Б В Г Д Е Ж Ѕ[13] И І К Л М Н О П Р С Т ОУ[14] Ф
Х Ѡ Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ ЪІ[15] Ь Ѣ Ѥ Ю Ѫ Ѭ Ѧ Ѩ Ѯ Ѱ Ѳ Ѵ Ҁ[16]

Capital and lowercase letters were not distinguished in old manuscripts.

A page from the Church Slavonic Grammar of Meletius Smotrytsky (1619)

Yeri (Ы) was originally a ligature of Yer and I (Ъ + І = Ы). Iotation was indicated by ligatures formed with the letter І: (not an ancestor of modern Ya, Я, which is derived from Ѧ), Ѥ, Ю (ligature of І and ОУ), Ѩ, Ѭ. Sometimes different letters were used interchangeably, for example И = І = Ї, as were typographical variants like О = Ѻ. There were also commonly used ligatures like ѠТ = Ѿ.

The letters also had numeric values, based not on Cyrillic alphabetical order, but inherited from the letters' Greek ancestors.

Cyrillic numerals
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
А В Г Д Є Ѕ З И Ѳ
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
І К Л М Н Ѯ Ѻ П Ч (Ҁ)
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Р С Т Ѵ Ф Х Ѱ Ѿ Ц

The early Cyrillic alphabet is difficult to represent on computers. Many of the letterforms differed from those of modern Cyrillic, varied a great deal in manuscripts, and changed over time. Few fonts include glyphs sufficient to reproduce the alphabet. In accordance with Unicode policy, the standard does not include letterform variations or ligatures found in manuscript sources unless they can be shown to conform to the Unicode definition of a character.

The Unicode 5.1 standard, released on 4 April 2008, greatly improves computer support for the early Cyrillic and the modern Church Slavonic language. In Microsoft Windows, the Segoe UI user interface font is notable for having complete support for the archaic Cyrillic letters since Windows 8.[citation needed]

Letters of the Cyrillic alphabet (see also Cyrillic digraphs)
А
A
Б
Be
В
Ve
Г
Ge
Ґ
Ghe upturn
Д
De
Ђ
Dje
Ѓ
Gje
Е
Ye
Ё
Yo
Є
Ukrainian Ye
Ж
Zhe
З
Ze
З́
Zje
Ѕ
Dze
И
I
І
Dotted I
Ї
Yi
Й
Short I
Ј
Je
К
Ka
Л
El
Љ
Lje
М
Em
Н
En
Њ
Nje
О
O
П
Pe
Р
Er
С
Es
С́
Sje
Т
Te
Ћ
Tshe
Ќ
Kje
У
U
Ў
Short U
Ф
Ef
Х
Kha
Ц
Tse
Ч
Che
Џ
Dzhe
Ш
Sha
Щ
Shcha
Ъ
Hard sign (Yer)
Ы
Yery
Ь
Soft sign (Yeri)
Э
E
Ю
Yu
Я
Ya
Important Cyrillic non-Slavic letters
Ӏ
Palochka
Ә
Cyrillic Schwa
Ғ
Ayn
Ҙ
Bashkir Dhe
Ҫ
Bashkir The
Ҡ
Bashkir Qa
Җ
Zhje
Қ
Ka with
descender
Ң
Ng
Ҥ
En-ghe
Ө
Barred O
Ү
Straight U
Ұ
Straight U
with stroke
Һ
Shha (He)
Ҳ
Kha with
descender
Ӑ
A with
breve
Cyrillic letters used in the past

A iotified
Ѥ
E iotified
Ѧ
Yus small
Ѫ
Yus big
Ѩ
Yus small iotified
Ѭ
Yus big iotified
Ѯ
Ksi
Ѱ
Psi

Yn
Ѳ
Fita
Ѵ
Izhitsa
Ѷ
Izhitsa okovy
Ҁ
Koppa
ОУ
Uk
Ѡ
Omega
Ѿ
Ot
Ѣ
Yat
Other Languages
azərbaycanca: Kiril qrafikası
Bahasa Banjar: Abjad Sirilik
Bân-lâm-gú: Kyril jī
башҡортса: Кириллица
беларуская: Кірыліца
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кірыліца
български: Кирилица
bosanski: Ćirilica
буряад: Кирилл үзэг
Чӑвашла: Кириллица
čeština: Cyrilice
davvisámegiella: Kyrillalaš alfabehta
dolnoserbski: Kyriliski alfabet
eesti: Kirillitsa
Esperanto: Cirila alfabeto
Fiji Hindi: Cyrillic akchhar
ГӀалгӀай: Кириллица
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Kyril Sṳ-mû
한국어: 키릴 문자
հայերեն: Կյուրեղագիր
hornjoserbsce: Kyriliski alfabet
hrvatski: Ćirilica
Bahasa Indonesia: Alfabet Kiril
interlingua: Alphabeto cyrillic
Basa Jawa: Alfabèt Kiril
къарачай-малкъар: Кириллица
ქართული: კირილიცა
қазақша: Кириллица
Kiswahili: Kikyrili
Kreyòl ayisyen: Alfabèt sirilik
Кыргызча: Кириллица
latviešu: Kirilica
Lëtzebuergesch: Kyrillescht Alphabet
lietuvių: Kirilica
Lingua Franca Nova: Alfabeta cirilica
македонски: Кирилица
Malagasy: Abidy sirilika
მარგალური: კირილიცა
مازِرونی: سیریلیک الفبا
Bahasa Melayu: Abjad Cyril
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Kyril cê-mō̤
монгол: Кирил үсэг
Nederlands: Cyrillisch schrift
日本語: キリル文字
нохчийн: Кириллица
Nordfriisk: Kyrilisk skraft
Nouormand: A b c Cyrillique
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kirill alifbosi
پنجابی: سیریلک لپی
Piemontèis: Alfabet sirìlich
Plattdüütsch: Kyrillisch Alphabet
polski: Cyrylica
português: Alfabeto cirílico
Runa Simi: Kirilitsa
русиньскый: Кіріліця
русский: Кириллица
саха тыла: Кириллица
Simple English: Cyrillic alphabet
slovenčina: Cyrilika
slovenščina: Cirilica
словѣньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ: Гражданьска аꙁъбоукꙑ
ślůnski: Cyrylica
српски / srpski: Ћирилица
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Ćirilica
Basa Sunda: Alfabét Kirilik
Taqbaylit: Agemmay ssirilik
татарча/tatarça: Кириллица
Türkçe: Kiril alfabesi
тыва дыл: Кириллица
удмурт: Кириллица
українська: Кирилиця
vepsän kel’: Kirilline kirjamišt
Tiếng Việt: Bảng chữ cái Kirin
Volapük: Lafab kirilik
žemaitėška: Kėrėlėca