Cyborg

A cyborg (ɡ/) short for "cybernetic organism") is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term was coined in 1960 by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline.[1]

The term cyborg is not the same thing as bionic, biorobot or android; it applies to an organism that has restored function or enhanced abilities due to the integration of some artificial component or technology that relies on some sort of feedback.[2] While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, including humans, they might also conceivably be any kind of organism.

D. S. Halacy's Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction which spoke of a "new frontier" that was "not merely space, but more profoundly the relationship between 'inner space' to 'outer space' – a bridge...between mind and matter."[3]

In popular culture, some cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g., Cyborg from DC Comics, the Cybermen in the Doctor Who franchise or The Borg from Star Trek or Darth Vader from Star Wars) or as almost indistinguishable from humans (e.g., the "Human" Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica, etc.). Cyborgs in fiction often play up a human contempt for over-dependence on technology, particularly when used for war, and when used in ways that seem to threaten free will.[citation needed] Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, among other things), such as Robocop.[citation needed]

Overview

According to some definitions of the term, the physical attachments humanity has with even the most basic technologies have already made them cyborgs.[4] In a typical example, a human with an artificial cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator would be considered a cyborg, since these devices measure voltage potentials in the body, perform signal processing, and can deliver electrical stimuli, using this synthetic feedback mechanism to keep that person alive. Implants, especially cochlear implants, that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are also cyborg enhancements. Some theorists[who?] cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or bio-techno-social definition of aging has been suggested.[5]

The term is also used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes not only commonly used pieces of technology such as phones, computers, the Internet, etc. but also artifacts that may not popularly be considered technology; for example, pen and paper, and speech and language. When augmented with these technologies and connected in communication with people in other times and places, a person becomes capable of much more than they were before. An example is a computer, which gains power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. Another example, which is becoming more and more relevant is a bot-assisted human or human-assisted-bot, used to target social media with likes and shares.[6] Cybernetic technologies include highways, pipes, electrical wiring, buildings, electrical plants, libraries, and other infrastructure that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within.

Bruce Sterling in his universe of Shaper/Mechanist suggested an idea of alternative cyborg called Lobster, which is made not by using internal implants, but by using an external shell (e.g. a Powered Exoskeleton).[7] Unlike human cyborgs that appear human externally while being synthetic internally (e.g. the Bishop type in the Alien franchise), Lobster looks inhuman externally but contains a human internally (e.g. Elysium, RoboCop). The computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured cyborgs called Omar, where "Omar" is a Russian translation of the word "Lobster" (since the Omar are of Russian origin in the game).

Other Languages
العربية: سايبورغ
azərbaycanca: Kiborq
Bân-lâm-gú: Cyborg
български: Киборг
català: Ciborg
čeština: Kyborg
dansk: Cyborg
Deutsch: Cyborg
Ελληνικά: Σάιμποργκ
español: Cíborg
Esperanto: Kiborgo
euskara: Ziborg
فارسی: سایبورگ
français: Cyborg
Gaeilge: Cibearg
한국어: 사이보그
հայերեն: Կիբօրգ
हिन्दी: सायबॉर्ग
hrvatski: Kiborg
italiano: Cyborg
עברית: סייבורג
қазақша: Киборг
Latina: Cyborg
lietuvių: Kiborgas
magyar: Kiborg
മലയാളം: സൈബോർഗ്
Nederlands: Cyborg
日本語: サイボーグ
norsk: Kyborg
polski: Cyborg
português: Ciborgue
română: Cyborg
русский: Киборг
Simple English: Cyborg
سنڌي: سائبورگ
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kiborg
suomi: Kyborgi
svenska: Cyborg
Türkçe: Siborg
українська: Кіборг
اردو: سايبرگ
Tiếng Việt: Sinh vật cơ khí hóa
中文: 賽博格