Cybernetics

Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary[1] approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine."[2] In other words, it is the scientific study of how humans, animals and machines control and communicate with each other.

Cybernetics is applicable when a system being analyzed incorporates a closed signaling loop—originally referred to as a "circular causal" relationship—that is, where action by the system generates some change in its environment and that change is reflected in the system in some manner (feedback) that triggers a system change. Cybernetics is relevant to, for example, mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive, and social systems. The essential goal of the broad field of cybernetics is to understand and define the functions and processes of systems that have goals and that participate in circular, causal chains that move from action to sensing to comparison with desired goal, and again to action. Its focus is how anything (digital, mechanical or biological) processes information, reacts to information, and changes or can be changed to better accomplish the first two tasks.[3] Cybernetics includes the study of feedback, black boxes and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organizations including self-organization.

Concepts studied by cyberneticists include, but are not limited to: learning, cognition, adaptation, social control, emergence, convergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy, and connectivity. In cybernetics these concepts (otherwise already objects of study in other disciplines such as biology and engineering) are abstracted from the context of the specific organism or device.

The word cybernetics comes from Greek κυβερνητική (kybernētikḗ), meaning "governance", i.e., all that are pertinent to κυβερνάω (kybernáō), the latter meaning "to steer, navigate or govern", hence κυβέρνησις (kybérnēsis), meaning "government", is the government while κυβερνήτης (kybernḗtēs) is the governor or "helmperson" of the "ship". Contemporary cybernetics began as an interdisciplinary study connecting the fields of control systems, electrical network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology, neuroscience, anthropology, and psychology in the 1940s, often attributed to the Macy Conferences. During the second half of the 20th century cybernetics evolved in ways that distinguish first-order cybernetics (about observed systems) from second-order cybernetics (about observing systems).[4] More recently there is talk about a third-order cybernetics (doing in ways that embraces first and second-order).[5]

Studies in cybernetics provide a means for examining the design and function of any system, including social systems such as business management and organizational learning, including for the purpose of making them more efficient and effective. Fields of study which have influenced or been influenced by cybernetics include game theory, system theory (a mathematical counterpart to cybernetics), perceptual control theory, sociology, psychology (especially neuropsychology, behavioral psychology, cognitive psychology), philosophy, architecture, and organizational theory.[6] System dynamics, originated with applications of electrical engineering control theory to other kinds of simulation models (especially business systems) by Jay Forrester at MIT in the 1950s, is a related field.

Definitions

Cybernetics has been defined in a variety of ways, by a variety of people, from a variety of disciplines. Cybernetician Stuart Umpleby reports some notable definitions:[7]

  • "Science concerned with the study of systems of any nature which are capable of receiving, storing and processing information so as to use it for control."—A. N. Kolmogorov
  • "'The art of steersmanship': deals with all forms of behavior in so far as they are regular, or determinate, or reproducible: stands to the real machine -- electronic, mechanical, neural, or economic -- much as geometry stands to real object in our terrestrial space; offers a method for the scientific treatment of the system in which complexity is outstanding and too important to be ignored."—W. Ross Ashby
  • "A branch of mathematics dealing with problems of control, recursiveness, and information, focuses on forms and the patterns that connect."—Gregory Bateson
  • "The art of securing efficient operation [lit.: the art of effective action]."—Louis Couffignal[8][9]
  • "The art of effective organization."—Stafford Beer
  • "The art and science of manipulating defensible metaphors" (with relevance to constructivist epistemology. The author later extended the definition to include information flows "in all media", from stars to brains.)—Gordon Pask
  • "The art of creating equilibrium in a world of constraints and possibilities."—Ernst von Glasersfeld
  • "The science and art of understanding." – Humberto Maturana
  • "The ability to cure all temporary truth of eternal triteness."—Herbert Brun

Other notable definitions include:

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Kubernetika
Alemannisch: Kybernetik
العربية: سيبرنيطيقا
azərbaycanca: Kibernetika
Bân-lâm-gú: Khòng-chè-lūn
башҡортса: Кибернетика
беларуская: Кібернетыка
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кібэрнэтыка
български: Кибернетика
bosanski: Kibernetika
català: Cibernètica
čeština: Kybernetika
Cymraeg: Seiberneteg
dansk: Kybernetik
Deutsch: Kybernetik
español: Cibernética
Esperanto: Kibernetiko
euskara: Zibernetika
فارسی: سایبرنتیک
français: Cybernétique
Gaeilge: Cibirnitic
galego: Cibernética
Gĩkũyũ: Cybernetics
հայերեն: Կիբեռնետիկա
hrvatski: Kibernetika
Bahasa Indonesia: Sibernetika
íslenska: Stýrifræði
italiano: Cibernetica
עברית: קיברנטיקה
ქართული: კიბერნეტიკა
қазақша: Кибернетика
kurdî: Sîbernetîk
Кыргызча: Кибернетика
Latina: Cybernetica
latviešu: Kibernētika
lietuvių: Kibernetika
magyar: Kibernetika
монгол: Кибернетик
Nederlands: Cybernetica
norsk nynorsk: Kybernetikk
occitan: Cibernetica
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kibernetika
Piemontèis: Sibernética
polski: Cybernetyka
português: Cibernética
română: Cibernetică
русский: Кибернетика
Simple English: Cybernetics
slovenčina: Kybernetika
slovenščina: Kibernetika
српски / srpski: Кибернетика
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kibernetika
svenska: Cybernetik
Türkçe: Sibernetik
українська: Кібернетика
Vahcuengh: Hoengqceiqlwnh
Tiếng Việt: Điều khiển học
Winaray: Sibernitika
粵語: 模控學
中文: 控制论