Temporal range: Miocene – Recent[1]
Scientific classification edit
Zittel, 1895
Suborders and Families

Cuttlefish or cuttles[2] are marine molluscs of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. Cuttlefish have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone.

Cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from 15 to 25 cm (6 to 10 in), with the largest species, Sepia apama, reaching 50 cm (20 in) in mantle length and over 10.5 kg (23 lb) in mass.[3]

Cuttlefish eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The average life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about 1–2 years. Recent studies indicate cuttlefish are among the most intelligent invertebrates.[4] Cuttlefish also have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates.[4]

The "cuttle" in cuttlefish comes from the Old English name for the species, cudele, which may be cognate with the Old Norse koddi (cushion) and the Middle Low German Kudel (rag).[5] The Greco-Roman world valued the cuttlefish as a source of the unique brown pigment the creature releases from its siphon when it is alarmed. The word for it in both Greek and Latin, sepia, now refers to the reddish-brown color sepia in English.

Fossil record

The earliest sepia-like fossils of cuttlefish are from the Cretaceous period.[6][7] Whether the earlier Trachyteuthis is assigned to this class, or to the Octopodiformes, remains unclear.[8]

Other Languages
العربية: حبار
অসমীয়া: কাটলফিছ
asturianu: Xibia
Bân-lâm-gú: Hoe-ki
беларуская: Каракаціцы
български: Сепии
brezhoneg: Morgad
català: Sèpia
Cebuano: Sepiida
čeština: Sépie (řád)
Deutsch: Sepien
Ελληνικά: Σουπιά
español: Sepiida
euskara: Txibia
فارسی: سپیداج
français: Seiche (animal)
Gaeilge: Cudal
galego: Sepideos
한국어: 갑오징어목
हिन्दी: समुद्रफेनी
hrvatski: Sipe
Ido: Sepio
Bahasa Indonesia: Sotong
italiano: Sepiida
עברית: דיונונים
Basa Jawa: Sotong
қазақша: Тарбақ аяқ
Kiswahili: Dome
lietuvių: Sepijos
magyar: Tintahalak
മലയാളം: കണവ
Bahasa Melayu: Sotong Katak
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Dĕ̤ng-kiĕ
日本語: コウイカ目
norsk: Sepiida
Plattdüütsch: Echte Dintenfische
polski: Mątwy
português: Choco
русский: Каракатицы
Simple English: Cuttlefish
slovenčina: Sépie
slovenščina: Sipe
српски / srpski: Сипе
Basa Sunda: Balakutak
suomi: Seepiat
українська: Каракатиця
Tiếng Việt: Bộ Mực nang
Winaray: Bagulan
粵語: 墨魚
中文: 墨鱼目