Crop circle

Aerial view of a crop circle in Switzerland

A crop circle or crop formation is a pattern created by flattening a crop, [1] usually a cereal. The term was first coined in the early 1980s by Colin Andrews. [2] Crop circles have been described as all falling "within the range of the sort of thing done in hoaxes" by Taner Edis, professor of physics at Truman State University. [3] Although obscure natural causes or alien origins of crop circles are suggested by fringe theorists, [4] there is no scientific evidence for such explanations, and all crop circles are consistent with human causation. [5] [6] [7]

The number of crop circles has substantially increased from the 1970s to current times. There has been little scientific study of them. Circles in the United Kingdom are not spread randomly across the landscape but appear near roads, areas of medium to dense population and cultural heritage monuments, such as Stonehenge or Avebury. [8] In 1991, two hoaxers, Bower and Chorley, took credit for having created many circles throughout England after one of their circles was described by a circle investigator as impossible to be made by human hand. [9]

Formations are usually created overnight, [10] although some are reported to have appeared during the day. [11] In contrast to crop circles or crop formations, archaeological remains can cause cropmarks in the fields in the shapes of circles and squares, but they do not appear overnight, and they are always in the same places every year.

History

The concept of "crop circles" began with the original late-1970s hoaxes by Doug Bower and Dave Chorley (see Bower and Chorley, below). [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] They said that they were inspired by the Tully "saucer nest" case in Australia, where a farmer claimed to first have seen a UFO, then found a flattened circle of swamp reeds. [13]

Early reports of circular formations

A 1678 news pamphlet The Mowing-Devil: or, Strange News Out of Hartfordshire is claimed by some cereologists to be the first depiction of a crop circle. [12] Crop circle researcher Jim Schnabel does not consider it to be a historical precedent because it describes the stalks as being cut rather than bent. [12] (see folklore section)

In 1686, British naturalist Robert Plot reported on rings or arcs of mushrooms (see fairy rings) in The Natural History of Stafford-Shire and proposed air flows from the sky as a cause. [17] [18] In 1991 meteorologist Terence Meaden linked this report with modern crop circles, a claim that has been compared with those made by Erich von Däniken. [n 1]

An 1880 letter to the editor of Nature by amateur scientist John Rand Capron describes how a recent storm had created several circles of flattened crops in a field. [n 2]

Modern times

In 1932, archaeologist E C Curwen observed four dark rings in a field at Stoughton Down near Chichester, but could examine only one: "a circle in which the barley was 'lodged' or beaten down, while the interior area was very slightly mounded up." [21]

In 1963 amateur astronomer Sir Patrick Moore described a crater in a potato field in Wiltshire, which he considered was probably caused by an unknown meteoric body. In nearby wheat fields, there were several circular and elliptical areas where the wheat had been flattened. There was evidence of "spiral flattening". He thought they could be caused by air currents from the impact, since they led towards the crater. [22] Astronomer Hugh Ernest Butler observed similar craters and said they were likely caused by lighting strikes. [23]

In the 1960s, in Tully, Queensland, Australia, and in Canada, there were many reports of UFO sightings and circular formations in swamp reeds and sugar cane fields. [13] For example, on 8 August 1967, three circles were found in a field in Duhamel, Alberta, Canada, and the Department of National Defence sent two investigators, who concluded that it was artificially made but couldn't make definite conclusions on who made them or how. [24] The most famous case is the 1966 Tully "saucer nest", when a farmer said he witnessed a saucer-shaped craft rise 30 or 40 feet (12 m) up from a swamp and then fly away. When he went to investigate the location where he thought the saucer had landed, he found a nearly circular area 32 feet long by 25 feet wide where the grass was flattened in clockwise curves to water level within the circle, and the reeds had been uprooted from the mud. [13] The local police officer, the Royal Australian Air Force, and the University of Queensland concluded that it was most probably caused by natural causes, like a down draught, a willy-willy (dust devil), or a waterspout. In 1973, G.J. Odgers, Director of Public Relations, Department of Defence (Air Office), wrote to a journalist that the "saucer" was probably debris lifted by the causing willy-willy. Hoaxers Bower and Chorley said they were inspired by this case to start making the modern crop circles that appear today. [25]

Since the 1960s, there had been a surge of UFOlogists in Wiltshire, and there were rumours of "saucer nests" appearing in the area, but they were never photographed. [16] There are other pre-1970s reports of circular formations, especially in Australia and Canada, but they were always simple circles, which could have been caused by whirlwinds. [13] In Fortean Times David Wood reported that in 1940 he had already made crop circles near Gloucestershire using ropes. [26] In 1997, the Oxford English Dictionary recorded the earliest usage of the term "crop circles" in a 1988 issue of Journal of Meteorology, referring to a BBC film. [27] The coining of the term "crop circle" is attributed to Colin Andrews in the late 1970s or early 1980s. [28] [29]

Recent boom

The majority of reports of crop circles have appeared in and spread since the late 1970s [12] as many circles began appearing throughout the English countryside. This phenomenon became widely known in the late 1980s, after the media started to report crop circles in Hampshire and Wiltshire. After Bower's and Chorley's 1991 statement that they were responsible for many of them, circles started appearing all over the world. [10] To date, approximately 10,000 crop circles have been reported internationally, from locations such as the former Soviet Union, the UK, Japan, the U.S., and Canada. Sceptics note a correlation between crop circles, recent media coverage, and the absence of fencing and/or anti-trespassing legislation. [30]

Although farmers have expressed concern at the damage caused to their crops, local response to the appearance of crop circles can be enthusiastic, with locals taking advantage of the increase of tourism and visits from scientists, crop circle researchers, and individuals seeking spiritual experiences. [15] The market for crop-circle interest has consequently generated bus or helicopter tours of circle sites, walking tours, T-shirts, and book sales.

Since 2000, crop formations have increased in size and complexity of form, some featuring as many as 2000 different shapes, [10] and some incorporating complex mathematical and scientific characteristics. [31] [32] [33]

The researcher Jeremy Northcote found that crop circles in the UK are not spread randomly across the landscape. They tend to appear near roads, areas of medium to dense population, and cultural heritage monuments, such as Stonehenge or Avebury. They always appear in areas that are easy to access. This suggests strongly that circles are more likely to be caused by intentional human action than by paranormal activity. Another strong indication is that inhabitants of the zone with the most circles have a historical tendency for making big formations, including stone circles such as Stonehenge, burial mounds such as Silbury Hill, long barrows such as West Kennet Long Barrow, and White horses in chalk hills. [8]

A video sequence used in connection with the opening of the Olympic Games in London in 2012 shows two crop circle areas shaped as the Olympic Rings. Another Olympic crop circle area was visible for those landing at Heathrow Airport, London, UK before and during the Olympic Games. [34]

Bower and Chorley

In 1991, self-professed pranksters Doug Bower and Dave Chorley made headlines claiming it was they who started the phenomenon in 1978 with the use of simple tools consisting of a plank of wood, rope, and a baseball cap fitted with a loop of wire to help them walk in a straight line. [35] To prove their case they made a circle in front of journalists; a "cereologist" (advocate of paranormal explanations of crop circles), Pat Delgado, examined the circle and declared it authentic before it was revealed that it was a hoax. [9] [35] [36] Inspired by Australian crop circle accounts from 1966, Bower and Chorley claimed to be responsible for all circles made prior to 1987, and for more than 200 crop circles in 1978–1991 (with 1000 other circles not being made by them). [10] [37] After their announcement, the two men demonstrated making a crop circle. According to Professor Richard Taylor, "the pictographs they created inspired a second wave of crop artists. Far from fizzling out, crop circles have evolved into an international phenomenon, with hundreds of sophisticated pictographs now appearing annually around the globe." [10]

Smithsonian Magazine wrote:

Since Bower and Chorley’s circles appeared, the geometric designs have escalated in scale and complexity, as each year teams of anonymous circle-makers lay honey traps for New Age tourists [1]

Art and business

A crop circle with the logo of Swedish Railways.

Since the early 1990s, the UK arts collective named Circlemakers founded by artists Rod Dickinson and John Lundberg (and subsequently including artists Wil Russell and Rob Irving) have been creating crop circles in the UK and around the world both as part of their art practice and for commercial clients. [38]

Aerial view of a crop circle in Diessenhofen

On the night of 11–12 July 1992 a crop-circle making competition, for a prize of £3,000 [39] (partly funded by the Arthur Koestler Foundation), was held in Berkshire. The winning entry was produced by three Westland Helicopters engineers, using rope, PVC pipe, a plank, string, a telescopic device and two stepladders. [40] According to Rupert Sheldrake the competition was organised by him and John Michell and "co-sponsored by The Guardian and The Cerealogist". The prize money came from PM, a German magazine. Sheldrake wrote that "The experiment was conclusive. Humans could indeed make all the features of state-of-the-art crop formations at that time. Eleven of the twelve teams made more or less impressive formations that followed the set design". [41]

In 2002, Discovery Channel commissioned five aeronautics and astronautics graduate students from MIT to create crop circles of their own, aiming to duplicate some of the features claimed to distinguish "real" crop circles from the known fakes such as those created by Bower and Chorley. The creation of the circle was recorded and used in the Discovery Channel documentary Crop Circles: Mysteries in the Fields. [42]

In 2009 The Guardian reported that crop circle activity had been waning around Wiltshire, one of the reasons being that makers preferred making promotional circles for companies that pay well for their efforts. [43]

The Led Zeppelin boxed set, the remasters of the first boxed set, and the second boxed set all feature a crop circle that appeared in East Field in Alton Barnes, Wiltshire.

Legal implications

In 1992, Hungarian youths Gábor Takács and Róbert Dallos, both then 17, were the first people to face legal action after creating a crop circle. Takács and Dallos, of the St. Stephen Agricultural Technicum, a high school in Hungary specializing in agriculture, created a 36-metre (118 ft) diameter crop circle in a wheat field near Székesfehérvár, 43 miles (69 km) southwest of Budapest, on June 8, 1992. On September 3, the pair appeared on Hungarian TV and exposed the circle as a hoax, showing photos of the field before and after the circle was made. As a result, Aranykalász Co., the owners of the land, sued the teens for 630,000  Ft (~$3,000 USD) in damages. The presiding judge ruled that the students were only responsible for the damage caused in the circle itself, amounting to about 6,000 Ft (~$30 USD), and that 99% of the damage to the crops was caused by the thousands of visitors who flocked to Székesfehérvár following the media's promotion of the circle. The fine was eventually paid by the TV show, as were the students' legal fees.[ citation needed]

In 2000, Matthew Williams became the first man in the UK to be arrested for causing criminal damage after making a crop circle near Devizes. [44] In November 2000, he was fined £100 and £40 in costs. [45] [46] As of 2008, no one else has been successfully prosecuted in the UK for criminal damage caused by creating crop circles. [n 3]

Other Languages
български: Житни кръгове
català: Agroglif
čeština: Kruhy v obilí
Deutsch: Kornkreis
Ελληνικά: Αγρογλυφικά
Esperanto: Agroglifoj
euskara: Soro-zirkulu
ગુજરાતી: ક્રોપ સર્કલ
hrvatski: Likovi u žitu
Bahasa Indonesia: Lingkaran tanaman
Latina: Agroglypha
magyar: Gabonakör
Nederlands: Graancirkel
norsk: Kornsirkel
norsk nynorsk: Kornsirkel
slovenčina: Kruh v obilí
slovenščina: Žitni krog
српски / srpski: Ликови у житу
українська: Кола на полях
中文: 麥田圈