Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that basically involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement; others are
 In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket (originally, it is thought, a "wicket gate" through which sheep were herded), that the batsman must defend.
 The cricket historian
Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets (the goals); the "golf group", in which the ball is driven towards an undefended target (the hole); and the "cricket group", in which "the ball is aimed at a mark (the wicket) and driven away from it".
It is generally believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the
 Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in
Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597 (
Julian calendar; equating to 30 January 1598 in the
Gregorian calendar). The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old
John Derrick, who gave witness that:
"Being a scholler in the
ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies".
Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c.1550 by boys in
 The view that it was originally a children's game is reinforced by
Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket".
One possible source for the sport's name is the
Old English word "cryce" (or "cricc") meaning a crutch or staff. In
Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick".
Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of club or stick.
 Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the
County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the
Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the
Middle Dutch (in use in
Flanders at the time) "krick"(-e), meaning a stick (crook).
 Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low
wicket with two
stumps used in early cricket.
 According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of
Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for
hockey, met de (krik ket)sen (i.e., "with the stick chase").
 Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but also the sport itself may be of Flemish origin.
Growth of amateur and professional cricket in England
Evolution of the cricket bat. The original "hockey stick" (left) evolved into the straight bat from c.1760 when
pitched delivery bowling
Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most
runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects. The
bowled underarm by the
bowler and all along the ground towards a
batsman armed with a
bat that, in shape, resembled a
hockey stick; the batsman defended a low, two-stump
wicket; and runs were called "notches" because the
scorers recorded them by notching tally sticks.
In 1611, the year Cotgrave's dictionary was published,
ecclesiastical court records at
Sussex state that two parishioners, Bartholomew Wyatt and Richard Latter, failed to attend church on Easter Sunday because they were playing cricket. They were fined 12
d each and ordered to do
 This is the earliest mention of adult participation in cricket and it was around the same time that the earliest known organised inter-parish or
village match was played – at
 In 1624, a player called
Jasper Vinall died after he was accidentally struck on the head during a match between two parish teams in Sussex.
Cricket remained a low-key local pursuit for much of the century.
 It is known, through numerous references found in the records of ecclesiastical court cases, to have been proscribed at times by the
Puritans before and during the
 The problem was nearly always the issue of Sunday play as the Puritans considered cricket to be "profane" if played on the
Sabbath, especially if large crowds and/or
gambling were involved.
According to the social historian
Derek Birley, there was a "great upsurge of sport after the
Restoration" in 1660.
 Gambling on sport became a problem significant enough for Parliament to pass the 1664 Gambling Act, limiting stakes to £100 which was in any case a colossal sum exceeding the annual income of 99% of the population.
 Along with
horse racing and blood sports, cricket was perceived to be a gambling sport.
 Rich patrons made matches for high stakes, forming teams in which they engaged the first professional players.
 By the end of the century, cricket had developed into a major sport which was spreading throughout England and was already being taken abroad by English mariners and colonisers – the earliest reference to cricket overseas is dated 1676.
 A 1697 newspaper report survives of "a great cricket match" played in Sussex "for fifty guineas apiece" – this is the earliest known reference to an
The patrons, and other players from the social class known as the "
gentry", began to classify themselves as "
[fn 1] to establish a clear distinction vis-à-vis the professionals, who were invariably members of the
working class, even to the point of having separate changing and dining facilities.
 The gentry, including such high-ranking nobles as the
Dukes of Richmond, exerted their honour code of
noblesse oblige to claim rights of leadership in any sporting contests they took part in, especially as it was necessary for them to play alongside their "social inferiors" if they were to win their bets.
 In time, a perception took hold that the typical amateur who played in
first-class cricket, until 1962 when amateurism was abolished, was someone with a
public school education who had then gone to one of
Oxford University – society insisted that such people were "officers and gentlemen" whose destiny was to provide leadership.
 In a purely financial sense, the cricketing amateur would theoretically claim expenses for playing while his professional counterpart played under contract and was paid a wage or match fee; in practice, many amateurs claimed somewhat more than actual expenditure and the derisive term "shamateur" was coined to describe the syndrome.
English cricket in the 18th and 19th centuries
The game underwent major development in the 18th century to become England's national sport.
 Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and, in the middle years of the century, large crowds flocked to matches on the
Artillery Ground in Finsbury. The
single wicket form of the sport attracted huge crowds and wagers to match, its popularity peaking in the
 Bowling underwent an evolution around 1760 when bowlers began to
pitch the ball instead of rolling or skimming it towards the batsman. This caused a revolution in bat design because, to deal with the
bouncing ball, it was necessary to introduce the modern straight bat in place of the old "hockey stick" shape.
Its success was underwritten by the twin necessities of patronage and betting.
Hambledon Club was founded in the 1760s and, for the next twenty years until the formation of
Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) and the opening of
Lord's Old Ground in 1787, Hambledon was both the game's greatest club and its focal point. MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the
Laws of Cricket. New Laws introduced in the latter part of the 18th century included the three stump wicket and
leg before wicket (lbw).
The 19th century saw
underarm bowling superseded by first
roundarm and then
overarm bowling. Both developments were controversial.
 Organisation of the game at county level led to the creation of the county clubs, starting with
Sussex in 1839.
 In December 1889, the eight leading county clubs formed the official
County Championship, which began in 1890.
The most famous player of the 19th century was
W. G. Grace, who started his long and influential career in 1865. It was especially during the career of Grace that the distinction between amateurs and professionals became blurred by the existence of players like him who were nominally amateur but, in terms of their financial gain, de facto professional. Grace himself was said to have been paid more money for playing cricket than any professional.
The last two decades before the
First World War have been called the "
Golden Age of cricket". It is a nostalgic name prompted by the collective sense of loss resulting from the war, but the period did produce some great players and memorable matches, especially as organised competition at county and Test level developed.
Cricket becomes an international sport
The first English team to tour overseas, on board ship to North America, 1859
Meanwhile, the British Empire had been instrumental in spreading the game overseas and by the middle of the 19th century it had become well established in Australia, the Caribbean, India, New Zealand, North America and South Africa.
 In 1844, the
first-ever international match took place between the
United States and
 In 1859, a team of English players went to North America on
the first overseas tour.
The first Australian team to travel overseas consisted of
toured England in 1868.
 In 1862, an English team made the first tour of Australia.
In 1876–77, an
England team took part in what was retrospectively recognised as the first-ever
Test match at the
Melbourne Cricket Ground against
Australia. The rivalry between England and Australia gave birth to
The Ashes in 1882 and this has remained Test cricket's most famous contest.
 Test cricket began to expand in 1888–89 when
South Africa played England.
World cricket in the 20th century
The inter-war years were dominated by Australia's
Don Bradman, statistically the greatest Test batsman of all time. Test cricket continued to expand during the 20th century with the addition of the
West Indies (1928),
New Zealand (1930) and
India (1932) before the Second World War and then
Sri Lanka (1982),
Zimbabwe (1992) and
Bangladesh (2000) in the post-war period.
 South Africa was banned from international cricket from 1970 to 1992 as part of the
The rise of limited overs cricket
Cricket entered a new era in 1963 when English counties introduced the
limited overs variant.
 As it was sure to produce a result, limited overs cricket was lucrative and the number of matches increased.
 The first
Limited Overs International was played in 1971 and the governing
International Cricket Council (ICC), seeing its potential, staged the first limited overs
Cricket World Cup in 1975.
 In the 21st century, a new limited overs form,
Twenty20, made an immediate impact. On 22 June 2017,
Ireland became the 11th and 12th ICC full members, enabling them to play Test cricket.