Cricket

Cricket
Eden Gardens under floodlights during a match.jpg
Highest governing bodyInternational Cricket Council
First played16th century; South-East England
Characteristics
Contactno
Team members11 players per side (substitutes permitted in some circumstances)
Mixed genderyes, separate competitions
TypeTeam sport, Bat-and-Ball
EquipmentCricket Ball, Cricket Bat, Wicket (Stumps, Bails), Various protective equipment
VenueCricket Field
GlossaryGlossary of cricket terms
Presence
Country or regionWorldwide but most prominent in the Indian Sub-Continent, Australia, British Isles, Southern Africa, West Indies
Olympicno (1900 Summer Olympics only)

Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of which is a 20-metre (22-yard) pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player (so they are "out"). Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, and by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground. When ten players have been dismissed, the innings end and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches. They communicate with two off-field scorers who record the match's statistical information.

There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length. Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, which is a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a slightly raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core which is layered with tightly wound string.

Historically, cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century. It spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council (ICC), which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches. The game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket which is owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) in London. The sport is followed primarily in the Indian subcontinent, Australasia, the United Kingdom, Ireland, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.[1] Women's cricket, which is organised and played separately, has also achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, and having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country.

History

Origins

Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that basically involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement; others are baseball, golf, hockey, tennis, squash, and table tennis.[2] In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket (originally, it is thought, a "wicket gate" through which sheep were herded), that the batsman must defend.[3] The cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets (the goals); the "golf group", in which the ball is driven towards an undefended target (the hole); and the "cricket group", in which "the ball is aimed at a mark (the wicket) and driven away from it".[4]

It is generally believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period.[3] Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597 (Julian calendar; equating to 30 January 1598 in the Gregorian calendar). The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that:[5][6][7]

"Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies".

Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey.[7] The view that it was originally a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket".[8][9]

One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" (or "cricc") meaning a crutch or staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick".[5] In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of club or stick.[10] Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch (in use in Flanders at the time) "krick"(-e), meaning a stick (crook).[10] Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket.[11] According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de (krik ket)sen (i.e., "with the stick chase").[12] Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but also the sport itself may be of Flemish origin.[12]

Growth of amateur and professional cricket in England

Evolution of the cricket bat. The original "hockey stick" (left) evolved into the straight bat from c. 1760 when pitched delivery bowling began.

Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects. The ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick; the batsman defended a low, two-stump wicket; and runs were called "notches" because the scorers recorded them by notching tally sticks.[13][14][15]

In 1611, the year Cotgrave's dictionary was published, ecclesiastical court records at Sidlesham in Sussex state that two parishioners, Bartholomew Wyatt and Richard Latter, failed to attend church on Easter Sunday because they were playing cricket. They were fined 12d each and ordered to do penance.[16] This is the earliest mention of adult participation in cricket and it was around the same time that the earliest known organised inter-parish or village match was played – at Chevening, Kent.[5][17] In 1624, a player called Jasper Vinall died after he was accidentally struck on the head during a match between two parish teams in Sussex.[18]

Cricket remained a low-key local pursuit for much of the century.[9] It is known, through numerous references found in the records of ecclesiastical court cases, to have been proscribed at times by the Puritans before and during the Commonwealth.[19][20] The problem was nearly always the issue of Sunday play as the Puritans considered cricket to be "profane" if played on the Sabbath, especially if large crowds and/or gambling were involved.[21][22]

According to the social historian Derek Birley, there was a "great upsurge of sport after the Restoration" in 1660.[23] Gambling on sport became a problem significant enough for Parliament to pass the 1664 Gambling Act, limiting stakes to £100 which was in any case a colossal sum exceeding the annual income of 99% of the population.[23] Along with prizefighting, horse racing and blood sports, cricket was perceived to be a gambling sport.[24] Rich patrons made matches for high stakes, forming teams in which they engaged the first professional players.[25] By the end of the century, cricket had developed into a major sport which was spreading throughout England and was already being taken abroad by English mariners and colonisers – the earliest reference to cricket overseas is dated 1676.[26] A 1697 newspaper report survives of "a great cricket match" played in Sussex "for fifty guineas apiece" – this is the earliest known match that is generally considered top-class.[27][28]

The patrons, and other players from the social class known as the "gentry", began to classify themselves as "amateurs"[fn 1] to establish a clear distinction vis-à-vis the professionals, who were invariably members of the working class, even to the point of having separate changing and dining facilities.[29] The gentry, including such high-ranking nobles as the Dukes of Richmond, exerted their honour code of noblesse oblige to claim rights of leadership in any sporting contests they took part in, especially as it was necessary for them to play alongside their "social inferiors" if they were to win their bets.[30] In time, a perception took hold that the typical amateur who played in first-class cricket, until 1962 when amateurism was abolished, was someone with a public school education who had then gone to one of Cambridge or Oxford University – society insisted that such people were "officers and gentlemen" whose destiny was to provide leadership.[31] In a purely financial sense, the cricketing amateur would theoretically claim expenses for playing while his professional counterpart played under contract and was paid a wage or match fee; in practice, many amateurs claimed somewhat more than actual expenditure and the derisive term "shamateur" was coined to describe the syndrome.[32][33]

English cricket in the 18th and 19th centuries

Francis Cotes, The Young Cricketer, 1768

The game underwent major development in the 18th century to become England's national sport.[citation needed] Its success was underwritten by the twin necessities of patronage and betting.[34] Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and, in the middle years of the century, large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury.[citation needed] The single wicket form of the sport attracted huge crowds and wagers to match, its popularity peaking in the 1748 season.[35] Bowling underwent an evolution around 1760 when bowlers began to pitch the ball instead of rolling or skimming it towards the batsman. This caused a revolution in bat design because, to deal with the bouncing ball, it was necessary to introduce the modern straight bat in place of the old "hockey stick" shape.[36][citation needed]

The Hambledon Club was founded in the 1760s and, for the next twenty years until the formation of Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) and the opening of Lord's Old Ground in 1787, Hambledon was both the game's greatest club and its focal point.[citation needed] MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket. New Laws introduced in the latter part of the 18th century included the three stump wicket and leg before wicket (lbw).[37]

The 19th century saw underarm bowling superseded by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Both developments were controversial.[38] Organisation of the game at county level led to the creation of the county clubs, starting with Sussex in 1839.[39] In December 1889, the eight leading county clubs formed the official County Championship, which began in 1890.[40]

The most famous player of the 19th century was W. G. Grace, who started his long and influential career in 1865. It was especially during the career of Grace that the distinction between amateurs and professionals became blurred by the existence of players like him who were nominally amateur but, in terms of their financial gain, de facto professional. Grace himself was said to have been paid more money for playing cricket than any professional.[citation needed]

The last two decades before the First World War have been called the "Golden Age of cricket". It is a nostalgic name prompted by the collective sense of loss resulting from the war, but the period did produce some great players and memorable matches, especially as organised competition at county and Test level developed.[41]

Cricket becomes an international sport

The first English team to tour overseas, on board ship to North America, 1859

Meanwhile, the British Empire had been instrumental in spreading the game overseas and by the middle of the 19th century it had become well established in Australia, the Caribbean, India, New Zealand, North America and South Africa.[42] In 1844, the first-ever international match took place between the United States and Canada.[43] In 1859, a team of English players went to North America on the first overseas tour.[44]

The first Australian team to travel overseas consisted of Aboriginal stockmen who toured England in 1868.[45] In 1862, an English team made the first tour of Australia.[46]

In 1876–77, an England team took part in what was retrospectively recognised as the first-ever Test match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia.[citation needed] The rivalry between England and Australia gave birth to The Ashes in 1882 and this has remained Test cricket's most famous contest.[47] Test cricket began to expand in 1888–89 when South Africa played England.[citation needed]

World cricket in the 20th century

Don Bradman of Australia had a record Test batting average of 99.94.

The inter-war years were dominated by Australia's Don Bradman, statistically the greatest Test batsman of all time. Test cricket continued to expand during the 20th century with the addition of the West Indies (1928), New Zealand (1930) and India (1932) before the Second World War and then Pakistan (1952), Sri Lanka (1982), Zimbabwe (1992) and Bangladesh (2000) in the post-war period.[48][49] South Africa was banned from international cricket from 1970 to 1992 as part of the apartheid boycott.[50]

The rise of limited overs cricket

Cricket entered a new era in 1963 when English counties introduced the limited overs variant.[51] As it was sure to produce a result, limited overs cricket was lucrative and the number of matches increased.[52] The first Limited Overs International was played in 1971 and the governing International Cricket Council (ICC), seeing its potential, staged the first limited overs Cricket World Cup in 1975.[53] In the 21st century, a new limited overs form, Twenty20, made an immediate impact.[citation needed] On 22 June 2017, Afghanistan and Ireland became the 11th and 12th ICC full members, enabling them to play Test cricket.[54][55]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Krieket
Alemannisch: Cricket
العربية: كريكت
aragonés: Críquet
অসমীয়া: ক্ৰিকেট
asturianu: Críquet
azərbaycanca: Kriket
تۆرکجه: کریکت
বাংলা: ক্রিকেট
Bân-lâm-gú: Pán-kiû
башҡортса: Крикет
беларуская: Крыкет
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Крыкет
भोजपुरी: क्रिकेट
български: Крикет
Boarisch: Cricket
bosanski: Kriket
brezhoneg: Kriked
català: Criquet
čeština: Kriket
Cymraeg: Criced
dansk: Cricket
Deutsch: Cricket
eesti: Kriket
Ελληνικά: Κρίκετ
español: Críquet
Esperanto: Kriketo
estremeñu: Críquet
euskara: Kriket
فارسی: کریکت
Fiji Hindi: Cricket
français: Cricket
Frysk: Krikket
Gaeilge: Cruicéad
Gàidhlig: Criogaid
galego: Crícket
ગુજરાતી: ક્રિકેટ
한국어: 크리켓
հայերեն: Կրիկետ
हिन्दी: क्रिकेट
hrvatski: Kriket
Ido: Kriketo
Ilokano: Kriket
Bahasa Indonesia: Kriket
interlingua: Cricket
isiXhosa: Iqakamba
isiZulu: Ikhilikithi
íslenska: Krikket
italiano: Cricket
עברית: קריקט
Basa Jawa: Kriket
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕ್ರಿಕೆಟ್
ქართული: კრიკეტი
қазақша: Крикет
Kiswahili: Kriketi
latviešu: Krikets
Lëtzebuergesch: Cricket
lietuvių: Kriketas
magyar: Krikett
मैथिली: क्रिकेट
македонски: Крикет
मराठी: क्रिकेट
მარგალური: კრიკეტი
مصرى: كريكيت
Bahasa Melayu: Kriket
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကရစ်ကက်
Nederlands: Cricket
नेपाली: क्रिकेट
नेपाल भाषा: क्रिकेट
日本語: クリケット
Napulitano: Cricket
нохчийн: Крикет
norsk: Cricket
norsk nynorsk: Cricket
Nouormand: Cricket
occitan: Criquet
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: କ୍ରିକେଟ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kriket
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕ੍ਰਿਕਟ
پنجابی: کرکٹ
پښتو: کريکټ
Patois: Krikit
polski: Krykiet
português: Críquete
română: Crichet
Runa Simi: Sirp'i pukllay
русский: Крикет
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱠᱨᱤᱠᱮᱴ
Gagana Samoa: Kirikiti
संस्कृतम्: क्रिकेट्-क्रीडा
Scots: Cricket
sicilianu: Cricket
සිංහල: ක්‍රිකට්
Simple English: Cricket
سنڌي: ڪرڪيٽ
slovenčina: Kriket
slovenščina: Kriket
کوردی: کریکێت
српски / srpski: Крикет
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kriket
Basa Sunda: Krikét
suomi: Kriketti
svenska: Cricket
Tagalog: Kriket
తెలుగు: క్రికెట్
Türkçe: Kriket
українська: Крикет
اردو: کرکٹ
Tiếng Việt: Cricket
Winaray: Kriket
吴语: 板球
ייִדיש: קריקעט
粵語: 木球
žemaitėška: Krėkets
中文: 板球
डोटेली: क्रिकेट
Kabɩyɛ: Krɩkɛtɩ