Creuse

Creuse
Department
Prefecture building of the Creuse department, in Guéret
Prefecture building of the Creuse department, in Guéret
Flag of Creuse
Flag
Coat of arms of Creuse
Coat of arms
Location of Creuse in France
Location of Creuse in France
Coordinates: 46°07′20″N 1°54′46″E / 46°07′20″N 1°54′46″E / 46.12222; 1.91278
CountryFrance
RegionNouvelle-Aquitaine
PrefectureGuéret
SubprefecturesAubusson
Government
 • President of the General CouncilJean-Jacques Lozach (PS)
Area1
 • Total5,565 km2 (2,149 sq mi)
Population (2013)
 • Total120,872
 • Rank100th
 • Density22/km2 (56/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Department number23
Arrondissements2
Cantons15
Communes258
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Creuse (French pronunciation: ​[kʁøz]) is a department in central France named after the river Creuse.

History

Creuse is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was created from the former province of La Marche.

The County of Marche was a medieval French county, approximately corresponding to the modern département of Creuse. Marche first appeared as a separate fief about the middle of the 10th century, when William III, Duke of Aquitaine, gave it to one of his vassals named Boso, who took the title of count. In the 12th century, the countship passed to the family of Lusignan. They also were sometimes counts of Angoulême and counts of Limousin. With the death of the childless Count Guy in 1308, his possessions in La Marche were seized by Philip IV of France. In 1316 the king made La Marche an appanage for his youngest son the Prince, afterwards Charles IV. Several years later in 1327, La Marche passed into the hands of the House of Bourbon. The family of Armagnac held it from 1435 to 1477, when it reverted to the Bourbons. In 1527 La Marche was seized by Francis I and became part of the domains of the French crown. It was divided into Haute Marche and Basse Marche, the estates of the former continuing until the 17th century. From 1470 until the Revolution, the province was under the jurisdiction of the parlement of Paris.

In 1886 Bourganeuf ville lumière, located in a remote part of Creuse, became somewhat improbably the third town in France to receive a public electricity supply. Three years later, in 1889, the construction of a primitive hydro-electric factory at Cascade of the Jarrauds (Cascade des Jarrauds) on the little river Maulde at Saint-Martin-Château, 14 kilometers (8.7 mi) away, established a more reliable electricity supply for the little town. The creation of a power line from the plant to Bourganeuf was supervised by a pioneering engineer called Marcel Deprez: this was the first time that a power line over such a long distance had been constructed in France. The achievement was crowned with the region's first telephone line, installed in order to permit instant communication between the generating station and the newly illuminated town.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Creuse
aragonés: Cruesa
Bân-lâm-gú: Creuse
беларуская: Кроз (дэпартамент)
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Крэз (дэпартамэнт)
català: Cruesa
Cebuano: Creuse
Cymraeg: Creuse
dansk: Creuse
davvisámegiella: Creuse
Ελληνικά: Κρεζ
Esperanto: Creuse
euskara: Creuse
galego: Creuse
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Creuse
한국어: 크뢰즈주
հայերեն: Կրյոզ
Bahasa Indonesia: Creuse
interlingua: Departimento Creuse
italiano: Creuse
Kapampangan: Creuse
Kiswahili: Creuse
Ladino: Creuse
latviešu: Krēza
Lëtzebuergesch: Departement Creuse
Limburgs: Creuse
Malagasy: Creuse
मराठी: क्रूझ
Bahasa Melayu: Creuse
日本語: クルーズ県
norsk: Creuse
norsk nynorsk: Creuse
پنجابی: ضلع کروز
Plattdüütsch: Creuse
português: Creuse
română: Creuse
Scots: Creuse
Simple English: Creuse
slovenščina: Creuse (departma)
српски / srpski: Крез (департман)
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Creuse (departman)
suomi: Creuse
svenska: Creuse
Türkçe: Creuse
українська: Крез (департамент)
اردو: کروز
Tiếng Việt: Creuse
Volapük: Creuse
Winaray: Creuse
粵語: 克勒茲
中文: 克勒兹省