Crete

Crete
Native name: Κρήτη
Island of Crete, Greece.JPG
NASA photograph of Crete
Kriti in Greece.svg
Geography
LocationEastern Mediterranean
Coordinates35°12.6′N 24°54.6′E / 35°12.6′N 24°54.6′E / 35.2100; 24.9100
Area8,303 km2 (3,206 sq mi)
Area rank89
Highest elevation2,456 m (8,058 ft)
Highest pointMount Ida (Psiloritis)
Administration
RegionCrete
Capital cityHeraklion
Largest settlementHeraklion (pop. 224,253)
Demographics
DemonymCretan (Greek)
Population623,065 (2011)
Population rank73
Pop. density75 /km2 (194 /sq mi)

Crete (Greek: Κρήτη, Kríti ['kriti]; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete (Greek: Περιφέρεια Κρήτης), one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece. The capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011, the region had a population of 623,065.

Crete forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits (such as its own poetry and music). It was once the centre of the Minoan civilisation (c. 2700–1420 BC), which is the earliest known civilisation in Europe. The palace of Knossos lies in Crete.[1]

Name

The island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC,[2] repeated later in Neo-Assyrian records and the Bible (Caphtor). It was also known in ancient Egyptian as Keftiu, strongly suggesting a similar Minoan name for the island.[3]

The current name of Crete is thought to be first attested in Mycenaean Greek texts written in Linear B, through the words ke-re-te (*Krētes; later Greek: Κρῆτες, plural of Κρής),[4] ke-re-si-jo (*Krēsijos; later Greek: Κρήσιος),[5] "Cretan".[6][7] In Ancient Greek, the name Crete (Κρήτη) first appears in Homer's Odyssey.[8] Its etymology is unknown. One proposal derives it from a hypothetical Luvian word *kursatta (cf. kursawar "island", kursattar "cutting, sliver").[9] In Latin, it became Creta.

The original Arabic name of Crete was Iqrīṭiš (Arabic: اقريطش‎ < (της) Κρήτης), but after the Emirate of Crete's establishment of its new capital at ربض الخندق Rabḍ al-Ḫandaq (modern Iraklion), both the city and the island became known as Χάνδαξ (Khandhax) or Χάνδακας (Khandhakas), which gave Latin and Venetian Candia, from which were derived French Candie and English Candy or Candia. Under Ottoman rule, in Ottoman Turkish, Crete was called Girit (كريت).

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Kreta
Alemannisch: Kreta
አማርኛ: ቀርጤስ
Ænglisc: Creto
العربية: كريت
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܩܪܛܐ
asturianu: Creta
azərbaycanca: Krit
تۆرکجه: کرت
বাংলা: ক্রিট
Bân-lâm-gú: Crete
беларуская: Крыт
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Крыт
български: Крит
bosanski: Kreta
brezhoneg: Kreta
català: Creta
Чӑвашла: Крит
čeština: Kréta
corsu: Creta
Cymraeg: Creta
dansk: Kreta
Deutsch: Kreta
dolnoserbski: Kreta
eesti: Kreeta
Ελληνικά: Κρήτη
español: Creta
Esperanto: Kreto (insulo)
euskara: Kreta
فارسی: کرت
føroyskt: Kreta
français: Crète
Frysk: Kreta
Gaeilge: An Chréit
한국어: 크레타
Հայերեն: Կրետե
हिन्दी: क्रीत
hornjoserbsce: Kreta
hrvatski: Kreta
Ido: Kriti
Bahasa Indonesia: Kreta
interlingua: Creta
Interlingue: Creta
Ирон: Крит
íslenska: Krít (eyja)
italiano: Creta
עברית: כרתים
Basa Jawa: Kreta
ქართული: კრეტა
қазақша: Крит
Kiswahili: Krete
kurdî: Kreta
Кыргызча: Крит
Latina: Creta
latviešu: Krēta
Lëtzebuergesch: Kreta
lietuvių: Kreta
Limburgs: Kreta
lumbaart: Creta
македонски: Крит
Malagasy: Krity
മലയാളം: ക്രീറ്റ്
मराठी: क्रीट
მარგალური: კრეტა
مصرى: كريت
Bahasa Melayu: Crete
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gáik-lī-dī
Nederlands: Kreta
Nedersaksies: Kreta
日本語: クレタ島
Nordfriisk: Kreeta (Regiuun)
norsk: Kreta
norsk nynorsk: Kreta
occitan: Creta
олык марий: Крит
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Krit
پنجابی: کریٹ
Plattdüütsch: Kreta
polski: Kreta
Ποντιακά: Κρήτη
português: Creta
română: Creta
Runa Simi: Kriti
русский: Крит
Scots: Crete
Seeltersk: Kreta
shqip: Kreta
sicilianu: Crita
Simple English: Crete
slovenčina: Kréta
slovenščina: Kreta
ślůnski: Kreta
کوردی: کریت
српски / srpski: Крит
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Krit
suomi: Kreeta
svenska: Kreta
Tagalog: Creta
தமிழ்: கிரீட்
татарча/tatarça: Крит
ไทย: ครีต
Türkçe: Girit
українська: Крит
اردو: کریٹ
vèneto: Càndia
Tiếng Việt: Crete
Winaray: Krete
吴语: 克里特岛
Xitsonga: Crete
粵語: 克里特
Zeêuws: Kreta
中文: 克里特
Lingua Franca Nova: Criti