Congress of the Republic of Peru

Congress of the Republic
Congreso de la República
Period 2016-2021
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
EstablishedSeptember 20, 1822
(First Constituent Congress)
July 26, 1995
(Current Congress)
Leadership
President of Congress
Daniel Salaverry,
Popular Force
Since 26 July 2018
1st Vice President of Congress
Leyla Chihuán,
Popular Force
Since 26 July 2018
2nd Vice President of Congress
Segundo Tapia,
Popular Force
Since 26 July 2018
3rd Vice President of Congress
Yeni Vilcatoma,
Popular Force
Since 29 July 2018
Structure
Seats130
Congreso Perú 2018.svg
Political groups

Government (15)
     PPK (15)

Opposition (115)
     FP (62)
     Independents (15)
     FA (10)
     NP (es) (10)
     APP (8)
     AP (5)

     APRA (5)
SalaryS/187,200 Annually
Elections
Proportional representation
with a 5%[1] threshold
Last election
10 April 2016
Next election
On or before 10 April 2021
Meeting place
Vista panorámica del Hemiciclo de sesiones del Congreso del Peru.jpg
Palacio Legislativo
Plaza Bolívar, Lima, Peru
Website
Congress of the Republic of Peru

The Congress of the Republic of Peru (Spanish: Congreso de la República) is the unicameral body that assumes legislative power in Peru. The congress consists of 130 members (congresistas), who are elected for five-year periods in office on a proportional representation basis.

Currently, the Peruvian congress congregates at the Palacio Legislativo, which is located in the Historical Center of Lima, across the road from Plaza Simón Bolívar and a few blocks away from Casa de Pizarro.

The last congressional election was held on April 10, 2016, concurrently with the presidential election. Since July 26, 2018, the President of Congress is Daniel Salaverry, of the Popular Force party.

History

The Legislative Palace. In front of it, the famous Tadolini's Simon Bolivar statue in the Plaza Bolívar.
Details of the façade.
Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Peru
Constitution

The first Peruvian Congress was installed in 1822 as the Constitutional Congress led by Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro. In 1829, the government installed a bicameral Congress, made up by a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies. This system was interrupted by a number of times by Constitutional Congresses that promulgated new Constitutions that lasted for a couple of years. The Deputies reunited in the Legislative Palace and the Senators went to the former Peruvian Inquisition of Lima until 1930, when Augusto B. Leguía was overthrown by Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro. He installed a Constitutional Congress (1931–1933) that promulgated the Constitution of 1933. By order of the president, the Peruvian Aprista Party members that were in Congress were arrested for there revolutionary doctrines against the government. When Sánchez Cerro was assassinated in 1933 by an APRA member, General Óscar R. Benavides took power and closed Congress until 1939, when Manuel Prado Ugarteche was elected President. During various dictatorships, the Congress was interrupted by coups d'état. In 1968, Juan Velasco Alvarado overthrew president Fernando Belaúnde by a coup d'état, closing again the Congress.

The 1979 Constitution was promulgated on July 12, 1979 by the Constitutional Assembly elected following 10 years of military rule and replaced the suspended 1933 Constitution. It became effective in 1980 with the re-election of deposed President Fernando Belaúnde. It limited the president to a single five-year term and established a bicameral legislature consisting of a 60-member Senate (upper house) and a 180-member Chamber of Deputies (lower house). Members of both chambers were elected for five-year terms, running concurrently with that of the president. Party-list proportional representation was used for both chambers: on a regional basis for the Senate, and using the D'Hondt method for the lower house. Members of both houses had to be Peruvian citizens, with a minimum age of 25 for deputies and 35 for senators. At the beginning of the 1990s, the bicameral congress had a low public approval rating. President Alberto Fujimori did not have the majority in both chambers, the opposition lead the Congress, imposing the power that Fujimori had as President. He made the decision of dissolving Congress by a self-coup to his government in 1992.

Following the self-coup, in which Congress was dissolved, the Democratic Constitutional Congress established a single chamber of 120 members. The CCD promulgated the 1993 Constitution in which gave more power to the President. The new unicameral Congress started working in 1995, dominated by Fujimori's Congressmen that had the majority. The Congress permits a one-year term for a Congressman to become President of Congress.