Congress Poland

Kingdom of Poland
Królestwo Polskie  (Polish)
Царство Польское (Russian)
1815–1867/1915[a]
Motto
Z nami Bóg!
"God is with us!"
Anthem
Pieśń narodowa za pomyślność króla
"National Song to the King's Well-being"
Map of Congress Poland, circa 1815, following the Congress of Vienna. The Russian Empire is shown in light green.
CapitalWarsaw
LanguagesPolish, Russian
ReligionRoman Catholic
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
King
 • 1815–1825Alexander I
 • 1825–1855Nicholas I
 • 1855–1881Alexander II
 • 1881–1894Alexander III
 • 1894–1915Nicholas II
Namiestnik-Viceroy
 • 1815–1826Józef Zajączek (first)
 • 1914–1915Pavel Yengalychev (last)
LegislatureSejm
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseChamber of Deputies
History
 • Established9 June 1815
 • Constitution adopted27 November 1815
 • November Uprising29 November 1830
 • January Uprising23 January 1863
 • Collapsed1867/1915[a]
Area
 • 1815128,500 km2 (49,600 sq mi)
Population
 • 1815 est.3,200,000 
     Density25/km2 (64/sq mi)
 • 1897 est.9,402,253 
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Duchy of Warsaw
Vistula Land
Today part of Belarus
 Lithuania
 Poland

The Kingdom of Poland,[1] informally known as Congress Poland[2] or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832. Then, it was gradually politically integrated into Russia over the course of the 19th century, made an official part of the Russian Empire in 1867, and finally replaced during World War I by the Central Powers in 1915 with the nominal Regency Kingdom of Poland.[a]

Though officially the Kingdom of Poland was a state with considerable political autonomy guaranteed by a liberal constitution, its rulers, the Russian Emperors, generally disregarded any restrictions on their power. Thus effectively it was little more than a puppet state of the Russian Empire.[3][4] The autonomy was severely curtailed following uprisings in 1830–31 and 1863, as the country became governed by namiestniks, and later divided into guberniya (provinces).[3][4] Thus from the start, Polish autonomy remained little more than fiction.[5]

The territory of the Kingdom of Poland roughly corresponds to the Kalisz Region and the Lublin, Łódź, Masovian, Podlaskie and Świętokrzyskie Voivodeships of Poland, southwestern Lithuania and part of Grodno District of Belarus.

Naming

Although the official name of the state was the Kingdom of Poland, in order to distinguish it from other Kingdoms of Poland, it is sometimes referred to as "Congress Poland".

Other Languages
Alemannisch: Kongresspolen
беларуская: Царства Польскае
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Царства Польскае
български: Полско кралство
Deutsch: Kongresspolen
Bahasa Indonesia: Ketsaran Polandia
Bahasa Melayu: Poland Kongres
Nederlands: Congres-Polen
српски / srpski: Конгресна Пољска
svenska: Kongresspolen