Computer programming

If the white bishop (at b3) moves to a2 capturing the black knight, then the black pawn at b1 is programmed to capture the bishop back (indicated by purple color) at a2. Black has just moved (yellow). Example from a chess game. Notation: if B×N then b1×B.

Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task. Programming involves tasks such as analysis, generating algorithms, profiling algorithms' accuracy and resource consumption, and the implementation of algorithms in a chosen programming language (commonly referred to as coding[1][2]). The source code of a program is written in one or more programming languages. The purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate the performance of a task for solving a given problem. The process of programming thus often requires expertise in several different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms, and formal logic.

Related programming tasks include testing, debugging, maintaining a program's source code, implementation of build systems, and management of derived artifacts such as machine code of computer programs. These might be considered part of the programming process, but often the term software development is used for this larger process with the term programming, implementation, or coding reserved for the actual writing of source code. Software engineering combines engineering techniques with software development practices.

History

Ada Lovelace, whose notes added to the end of Luigi Menabrea's paper included the first algorithm designed for processing by an Analytical Engine. She is often recognized as history's first computer programmer.

Programmable devices have existed at least as far back as 1206 AD, when the automata of Al-Jazari were programmable, via pegs and cams, to play various rhythms and drum patterns;[3] and the 1801 Jacquard loom could produce entirely different weaves by changing the "program" - a series of pasteboard cards with holes punched in them.

However, the first computer program is generally dated to 1843, when mathematician Ada Lovelace published an algorithm to calculate a sequence of Bernoulli numbers, intended to be carried out by Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine.[4] Women would continue to dominate the field of computer programming until the mid 1960s.[5]

Data and instructions were once stored on external punched cards, which were kept in order and arranged in program decks.

In the 1880s Herman Hollerith invented the concept of storing data in machine-readable form.[6] Later a control panel (plugboard) added to his 1906 Type I Tabulator allowed it to be programmed for different jobs, and by the late 1940s, unit record equipment such as the IBM 602 and IBM 604, were programmed by control panels in a similar way; as were the first electronic computers. However, with the concept of the stored-program computers introduced in 1949, both programs and data were stored and manipulated in the same way in computer memory.[citation needed]

Machine code was the language of early programs, written in the instruction set of the particular machine, often in binary notation. Assembly languages were soon developed that let the programmer specify instruction in a text format, (e.g., ADD X, TOTAL), with abbreviations for each operation code and meaningful names for specifying addresses. However, because an assembly language is little more than a different notation for a machine language, any two machines with different instruction sets also have different assembly languages. Kathleen Booth created one of the first Assembly languages in 1950 for various computers at Birkbeck College.[7]

Wired control panel for an IBM 402 Accounting Machine.

High-level languages allow the programmer to write programs in terms that are syntactically richer, and more capable of abstracting the code, making it targetable to varying machine instruction sets via compilation declarations and heuristics. The first compiler for a programming language was developed by Grace Hopper.[8] When Hopper went to work on UNIVAC in 1949, she brought the idea of using compilers with her.[9][10] Compilers harness the power of computers to make programming easier[11] by allowing programmers to specify calculations by entering a formula using infix notation (e.g., Y = X*2 + 5*X + 9) for example. FORTRAN, the first widely used high-level language to have a functional implementation which permitted the abstraction of reusable blocks of code, came out in 1957.[12] In 1951 Frances E. Holberton developed the first sort-merge generator which ran on the UNIVAC I.[13] Another woman working at UNIVAC, Adele Mildred Koss, developed a program that was a precursor to report generators.[13] In Russia, Kateryna Yushchenko developed the Address programming language for the MESM in 1955.[14]

The idea for the creation of COBOL started in 1959 when Mary K. Hawes, who worked for Burroughs Corporation, set up a meeting to discuss creating a common business language.[15] She invited six people, including Grace Hopper.[15] Hopper was involved in developing COBOL as a business language and creating "self-documenting" programming.[16][17] Hopper's contribution to COBOL was based on her programming language, called FLOW-MATIC.[10] In 1961, Jean E. Sammet developed FORMAC and also published Programming Languages: History and Fundamentals which went on to be a standard work on programming languages.[15][18]

Programs were mostly still entered using punched cards or paper tape. See computer programming in the punch card era. By the late 1960s, data storage devices and computer terminals became inexpensive enough that programs could be created by typing directly into the computers. Frances Holberton created a code to allow keyboard inputs while she worked at UNIVAC.[19] Text editors were developed that allowed changes and corrections to be made much more easily than with punched cards. Sister Mary Kenneth Keller worked on developing the programming language, BASIC which she was a graduate student at Dartmouth in the 1960s.[20] One of the first object-oriented programming languages, Smalltalk, was developed by seven programmers, including Adele Goldberg, in the 1970s.[21] In 1985, Radia Perlman developed the Spinning Tree Protocol in order to route packets of network information efficiently.[22][23]

Other Languages
العربية: برمجة
aragonés: Programación
asturianu: Programación
azərbaycanca: Proqramlaşdırma
беларуская: Праграмаванне
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кампутарнае праграмаваньне
български: Програмиране
čeština: Programování
español: Programación
Esperanto: Programado
euskara: Programazio
հայերեն: Ծրագրավորում
Bahasa Indonesia: Pemrograman
Кыргызча: Программалоо
latviešu: Programmēšana
lietuvių: Programavimas
la .lojban.: sampla
lumbaart: Programmazion
македонски: Програмирање
مصرى: برمجه
Bahasa Melayu: Pengaturcaraan
norsk nynorsk: Programmering
олык марий: Программлымаш
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Dasturlash
română: Programare
Simple English: Computer programming
српски / srpski: Програмирање
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Programiranje
svenska: Programmering
Türkçe: Programlama
Türkmençe: Programmirleme
українська: Програмування
Tiếng Việt: Lập trình máy tính
中文: 程序设计