Computer programming

Example of an internet chess program, Lichess, showing artificial intelligence programming– if the white bishop at b3 moves to a2, capturing the black knight, then the black pawn at b1 is programmed to capture the bishop back. Black has just moved a pawn to c2.

Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task. Programming involves tasks such as: analysis, generating algorithms, profiling algorithms' accuracy and resource consumption, and the implementation of algorithms in a chosen programming language (commonly referred to as coding).[1][2] The source code of a program is written in one or more languages that are intelligible to programmers, rather than machine code, which is directly executed by the central processing unit. The purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate the performance of a task (which can be as complex as an operating system) on a computer, often for solving a given problem. The process of programming thus often requires expertise in several different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain, specialized algorithms, and formal logic.

Tasks accompanying and related to programming include: testing, debugging, source code maintenance, implementation of build systems, and management of derived artifacts, such as the machine code of computer programs. These might be considered part of the programming process, but often the term software development is used for this larger process with the term programming, implementation, or coding reserved for the actual writing of code. Software engineering combines engineering techniques with software development practices. Reverse engineering is the opposite process. A hacker is any skilled computer expert that uses their technical knowledge to overcome a problem, but it can also mean a security hacker in common language.

History

Ada Lovelace, whose notes added to the end of Luigi Menabrea's paper included the first algorithm designed for processing by an Analytical Engine. She is often recognized as history's first computer programmer.

Programmable devices have existed at least as far back as 1206 AD, when the automata of Al-Jazari were programmable, via pegs and cams, to play various rhythms and drum patterns;[3] and the 1801 Jacquard loom could produce entirely different weaves by changing the "program" - a series of pasteboard cards with holes punched in them.

However, the first computer program is generally dated to 1843, when mathematician Ada Lovelace published an algorithm to calculate a sequence of Bernoulli numbers, intended to be carried out by Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine.[4]

Data and instructions were once stored on external punched cards, which were kept in order and arranged in program decks.

In the 1880s Herman Hollerith invented the concept of storing data in machine-readable form.[5] Later a control panel (plugboard) added to his 1906 Type I Tabulator allowed it to be programmed for different jobs, and by the late 1940s, unit record equipment such as the IBM 602 and IBM 604, were programmed by control panels in a similar way; as were the first electronic computers. However, with the concept of the stored-program computers introduced in 1949, both programs and data were stored and manipulated in the same way in computer memory.[citation needed]

Machine code was the language of early programs, written in the instruction set of the particular machine, often in binary notation. Assembly languages were soon developed that let the programmer specify instruction in a text format, (e.g., ADD X, TOTAL), with abbreviations for each operation code and meaningful names for specifying addresses. However, because an assembly language is little more than a different notation for a machine language, any two machines with different instruction sets also have different assembly languages.

Wired control panel for an IBM 402 Accounting Machine.

High-level languages made the process of developing a program simpler and more understandable, and less bound to the underlying hardware. FORTRAN, the first widely used high-level language to have a functional implementation, came out in 1957[6] and many other languages were soon developed – in particular, COBOL aimed at commercial data processing, and Lisp for computer research.

Programs were mostly still entered using punched cards or paper tape. See computer programming in the punch card era. By the late 1960s, data storage devices and computer terminals became inexpensive enough that programs could be created by typing directly into the computers. Text editors were developed that allowed changes and corrections to be made much more easily than with punched cards.

Other Languages
العربية: برمجة
aragonés: Programación
asturianu: Programación
azərbaycanca: Proqramlaşdırma
башҡортса: Программалау
беларуская: Праграмаванне
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кампутарнае праграмаваньне
български: Програмиране
čeština: Programování
español: Programación
Esperanto: Programado
euskara: Programazio
հայերեն: Ծրագրավորում
Bahasa Indonesia: Pemrograman
Кыргызча: Программалоо
latviešu: Programmēšana
lietuvių: Programavimas
la .lojban.: sampla
lumbaart: Programmazion
македонски: Програмирање
مصرى: برمجه
Bahasa Melayu: Pengaturcaraan
norsk nynorsk: Programmering
олык марий: Программлымаш
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Dasturlash
română: Programare
Simple English: Computer programming
српски / srpski: Програмирање
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Programiranje
svenska: Programmering
Türkçe: Programlama
Türkmençe: Programmirleme
українська: Програмування
Tiếng Việt: Lập trình máy tính
中文: 程序设计