Commuters on the New York City Subway during rush hour
Rush hour at Shinjuku Station, Tokyo

Commuting is periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work, or study, and in doing so exceed the boundary of their residential community.[1] It sometimes refers to any regular or often repeated traveling between locations, even when not work-related. A distinction is also often made between commuters who commute daily or weekly between their residence to work place, and are therefore considered respectively local or long-distance commuters.


The word commuter derives from early days of rail travel in US cities such as New York, Philadelphia, Boston and Chicago, where, in the 1840s, the railways engendered suburbs from which travellers paying a reduced or 'commuted' fare into the city. Later, the back formations "commute" and "commuter" were coined therefrom. Commuted tickets would usually allow the traveller to repeat the same journey as often as they liked during the period of validity: normally, the longer the period the cheaper the cost per day.[2]

Before the 19th century, most workers lived less than an hour's walk from their work. Today, many people travel daily to work a long way from their own towns, cities, and villages, especially in industrialised societies. Depending on factors such as the high cost of housing in city centres, lack of public transit, and traffic congestion, modes of travel may include automobiles, motorcycles, trains, aircraft, buses, and bicycles. Where Los Angeles is infamous for its automobile gridlock, commuting in New York is closely associated with the subway; in London and Tokyo and several European cities, "commuter" is automatically associated with rail passengers.[3] In the near future there may be another move away from the traditional "commute" with the introduction of flexible working. Some have suggested that many employees would be far more productive and live healthier, stress-free lives if the daily commute is removed completely.

Other Languages
العربية: تنقل
Bân-lâm-gú: Thong-khîn
čeština: Dojíždění
dansk: Pendling
Deutsch: Pendler
Esperanto: Navedado
فارسی: رفت‌وآمد
Frysk: Forinsisme
한국어: 통근
Bahasa Indonesia: Komuter
italiano: Pendolarismo
עברית: יוממות
magyar: Ingázás
Nederlands: Forensisme
日本語: 通勤
norsk: Pendling
norsk nynorsk: Pendling
Simple English: Commuting
svenska: Pendling
粵語: 通勤
中文: 通勤