Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist)

Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist)
FounderCharu Majumdar, Kanu Sanyal
Founded22 April 1969
Dissolved31 July 1972
Colours     Red

The Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) was formed by the All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries (AICCCR) at a congress in Calcutta in 1969. The foundation of the party was declared by Kanu Sanyal at a mass meeting in Calcutta on 22 April (Lenin's birthday).

Later the party splintered into hundreds of minor Naxal/Maoist terrorist groups.


The CPI(ML) party was formed by the radicals within the Communist Party of India (Marxist) who were becoming increasingly concerned about the parliamentary politics of CPI(M). They alleged that the CPI(M) party leadership was turning towards revisionism and simultaneously a debate ensued which finally let to expulsion of the radicalised faction within the CPI(M) and led to the formation of CPI(ML). CPI(ML) advocated armed revolution and denounced participation in the electoral process. The party leaders were Charu Majumdar and Saroj Dutta, both of whom had belonged to the left-wing within CPI(M) in northern West Bengal. Kanu Sanyal, Jongol Santhal and his followers had mobilized a revolutionary peasants movement in Naxalbari, which evolved into an armed uprising of the mostly Santhal tribal inhabitants. CPI(ML) saw Naxalbari as the spark that would start a new Indian revolution, and the movement came to be known as 'naxalites'. In several parts of India, for example Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, different parts of West Bengal and in Srikakulam in northern Andhra Pradesh CPI(ML) organized guerilla units. The party got moral support from China, which actively encouraged the attempts of CPI(ML) to launch revolution.[1][2][3]

According to Pradip Basu in his book "Towards Naxalbari(1953-1967): An Account of Inner-Party Ideological Struggle":[4][5]

"There were two nuclei of radicals in the party organisation in West Bengal. One "theorist" section around Parimal Das Gupta in Calcutta, which wanted to persuade the party leadership to correct revisionist mistakes through inner-party debate, and one "actionist" section led by Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal in North Bengal. The 'actionists' were impatient, and strived to organize armed uprisings. According to Basu, due to the prevailing political climate of youth and student rebellion it was the 'actionists' which came to dominate the new Maoist movement in India, instead of the more theoretically advanced sections."

Naxalbari uprising

It occurred in Naxalbari of Siliguri subdivision,Darjeeling district under the leadership of communist leaders like Charu Majumdar and others who later became the part of CPI(ML).[6]

Srikakulam peasant uprising

In the Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh, communist leaders aligned themselves with the then formed AICCCR and launched peasant upsurge in Srikakulam which continued for almost 5 years in late 1960s and early 1970s.[6]