Commonwealth realm

  Current Commonwealth realms
  Former Commonwealth realms or Dominions
Elizabeth II is the reigning sovereign of each of the 16 Commonwealth realms.

A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a crown legally distinct from the other realms. As of 2017, there are 16 Commonwealth realms: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, The Bahamas, Tuvalu and the United Kingdom.

The Statute of Westminster 1931 provided for the then Dominions—named therein as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, the Irish Free State, and Newfoundland—to have full legislative independence as equal members of the British Commonwealth of Nations, having, together with the United Kingdom, one person as the sovereign of each. Subsequently, India and Pakistan (both in 1947) and Ceylon (in 1948) became Dominions. By the early 1950s, in order to reflect the equality between the countries in that group, each (including the United Kingdom, but not the former Irish Free State and India, which had by that time become republics) came to be known as a realm. The word was formally used in Britain's proclamation of Elizabeth II as queen in 1952 and was adopted for the modern royal styles and titles under the legislation enacted by the individual countries. The principle was applied to other countries as they became Commonwealth realms, having sovereign status granted directly. The phrase Commonwealth realm, though used officially, is not a statutory term.

Current Commonwealth realms

There are 16 Commonwealth realms currently with a combined area (excluding Antarctic claims) of 18.7 million km2 (7.2 million mi2) [1] and a population of 144 million, [2] of which all but about two million live in the six most populous: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, and Jamaica.

Country [Note 1] Population [3](2016) Monarchy Date
[Note 2]
Queen's title [Note 3] Sovereign's
royal standard
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 100,963 Monarchy of Antigua and Barbuda 1981 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Antigua and Barbuda and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth. None
Australia Australia 24,125,848 Monarchy of Australia 1942 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Australia and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth. Royal Standard of Australia.svg
The Bahamas The Bahamas 391,232 Monarchy of the Bahamas 1973 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth. None
Barbados Barbados 284,996 Monarchy of Barbados 1966 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Barbados and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth Royal Standard of Barbados.svg
Belize Belize 366,954 Monarchy of Belize 1981 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Belize and of Her Other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
Canada Canada 36,289,822 Monarchy of Canada 1931 English: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom, Canada and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith
French: Elizabeth Deux, par la grâce de Dieu Reine du Royaume-Uni, du Canada et de ses autres royaumes et territoires, Chef du Commonwealth, Défenseur de la Foi [4]
Royal Standard of Canada.svg
Grenada Grenada 107,317 Monarchy of Grenada 1974 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Grenada and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
Jamaica Jamaica 2,881,355 Monarchy of Jamaica 1962 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Jamaica and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth Royal Standard of Jamaica.svg
New Zealand New Zealand [Note 4] 4,660,833 Monarchy of New Zealand 1947 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of New Zealand and Her Other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith [5] Royal Standard of New Zealand.svg
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 8,084,991 Monarchy of Papua New Guinea 1975 Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Papua New Guinea and Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth [6] None
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 54,821 Monarchy of Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Saint Christopher and Nevis and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 178,015 Monarchy of Saint Lucia 1979 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Saint Lucia and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 109,643 Monarchy of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 599,419 Monarchy of Solomon Islands 1978 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Solomon Islands and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
Tuvalu Tuvalu 11,097 Monarchy of Tuvalu 1978 Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, Queen of Tuvalu and of Her other Realms and Territories, Head of the Commonwealth None
United Kingdom United Kingdom [Note 5] 65,788,574 Monarchy of the United Kingdom 1931 English: Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith
Latin: Elizabeth Secunda Dei Gratia Britanniarum Regnorumque Suorum Ceterorum Regina Consortionis Populorum Princeps Fidei Defensor [7]
Royal Standard of the United Kingdom.svg

Royal Standard of the United Kingdom (in Scotland).svg

  1. ^ The flags shown are the current national flags of the Commonwealth realms. The current Canadian flag was adopted in 1965.
  2. ^ Dates indicate the year each country became a member of the Commonwealth, as from the year of enactment of the Statute of Westminster or the year of the country's independence.
  3. ^ Differences shown here in bold.
  4. ^ Niue and the Cook Islands are under the sovereignty of the Queen of New Zealand as self-governing states in free association with New Zealand. New Zealand and its associated states, along with Tokelau and the Ross Dependency, comprise the Realm of New Zealand.
  5. ^ Guernsey, Jersey, and the Isle of Man—the Crown dependencies—are self-governing possessions of the British Crown, under the sovereignty of the Queen of the United Kingdom. Together with the UK, these comprise the British Islands.
Other Languages
Alemannisch: Commonwealth Realm
Ænglisc: Cynewīsan rice
Bahasa Indonesia: Wilayah Persemakmuran
Lëtzebuergesch: Commonwealth Realm
Bahasa Melayu: Alam Komanwel
Nederlands: Commonwealth realm
日本語: 英連邦王国
Simple English: Commonwealth realm
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Komonveltska kraljevstva
中文: 國協境域