Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth
Logo of The Commonwealth
Logo
Member states of the Commonwealth
HeadquartersMarlborough House
London, SW1
United Kingdom
Working languageEnglish
TypeIntergovernmental organisation
Member states
Leaders
• Head
Elizabeth II
Patricia Scotland
Theresa May
Establishment
19 November 1926
11 December 1931[1]
28 April 1949
Area
• Total
29,958,050 km2 (11,566,870 sq mi)
Population
• 2016 estimate
2,418,964,000
• Density
75/km2 (194.2/sq mi)

The Commonwealth of Nations, normally known as the Commonwealth,[2] is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.[3] The chief institutions of the organisation are the Commonwealth Secretariat, which focuses on intergovernmental aspects, and the Commonwealth Foundation, which focuses on non-governmental relations between member states.[4]

The Commonwealth dates back to the first half of the 20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was originally created as the British Commonwealth of Nations[5] through the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference, and formalised by the United Kingdom through the Statute of Westminster in 1931. The current Commonwealth of Nations was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which modernised the community, and established the member states as "free and equal".[6] The symbol of this free association is Queen Elizabeth II, who is the Head of the Commonwealth. The Queen is head of state of 16 member states, known as the Commonwealth realms, while 32 other members are republics and five others have different monarchs.

Member states have no legal obligations to one another. Instead, they are united by language, history, culture and their shared values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law.[4] These values are enshrined in the Commonwealth Charter[7] and promoted by the quadrennial Commonwealth Games.

The countries of the Commonwealth cover more than 29,958,050 km2 (11,566,870 sq mi), equivalent to 20% of the world's land area and spans all six inhabited continents.

History

Origins of the concept and establishment of the term

Queen Elizabeth II, in her address to Canada on Dominion Day in 1959, pointed out that the confederation of Canada on 1 July 1867 had been the birth of the "first independent country within the British Empire". She declared: "So, it also marks the beginning of that free association of independent states which is now known as the Commonwealth of Nations."[8] As long ago as 1884 Lord Rosebery had described, while visiting Australia, the changing British Empire, as some of its colonies became more independent, as a "Commonwealth of Nations".[9] Conferences of British and colonial prime ministers occurred periodically from the first one in 1887, leading to the creation of the Imperial Conferences in 1911.[10]

The Commonwealth developed from the imperial conferences. A specific proposal was presented by Jan Smuts in 1917 when he coined the term "the British Commonwealth of Nations" and envisioned the "future constitutional relations and readjustments in essence" at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 by delegates from the Dominions as well as Britain.[11][12] The term first received imperial statutory recognition in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, when the term British Commonwealth of Nations was substituted for British Empire in the wording of the oath taken by members of parliament of the Irish Free State.[13]

Adoption and formalisation of the Commonwealth

In the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference, Britain and its dominions agreed they were "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations." The term "Commonwealth" was officially adopted to describe the community.[14]

These aspects to the relationship were formalised by the Statute of Westminster in 1931, which applied to Canada without the need for ratification, but Australia, New Zealand, and Newfoundland had to ratify the statute for it to take effect. Newfoundland never did, as on 16 February 1934, with the consent of its parliament, the government of Newfoundland voluntarily ended and governance reverted to direct control from London. Newfoundland later joined Canada as its 10th province in 1949.[15] Australia and New Zealand ratified the Statute in 1942 and 1947 respectively.[16][17]

Although the Union of South Africa was not among the Dominions that needed to adopt the Statute of Westminster for it to take effect, two laws—the Status of the Union Act, 1934, and the Royal Executive Functions and Seals Act of 1934—were passed to confirm South Africa's status as a sovereign state.[18]

Decolonisation and self-governance

After World War II ended, the British Empire was gradually dismantled. Most of its components have become independent countries, whether Commonwealth realms or republics, and members of the Commonwealth. There remain the 14 mainly self-governing British overseas territories which retain some political association with the United Kingdom. In April 1949, following the London Declaration, the word "British" was dropped from the title of the Commonwealth to reflect its changing nature.[19]

Burma (also known as Myanmar, 1948) and Aden (1967) are the only states that were British colonies at the time of the war not to have joined the Commonwealth upon independence. Former British protectorates and mandates that did not become members of the Commonwealth are Egypt (independent in 1922), Iraq (1932), Transjordan (1946), British Palestine (part of which became the state of Israel in 1948), Sudan (1956), British Somaliland (which united with the former Italian Somaliland in 1960 to form the Somali Republic), Kuwait (1961), Bahrain (1971), Oman (1971), Qatar (1971), and the United Arab Emirates (1971).[20]

Declining roles

The postwar Commonwealth was given a fresh mission by Queen Elizabeth in her Christmas Day 1953 broadcast, where she envisioned the Commonwealth as "an entirely new conception – built on the highest qualities of the Spirit of Man: friendship, loyalty, and the desire for freedom and peace."[21] Hoped for success was reinforced by such achievements as climbing Mount Everest in 1953, breaking the four minute mile in 1954, and in 1966 a solo circumnavigation of the globe.[22] However, the humiliation of the Suez Crisis of 1956 badly hurt morale of Britain and the Commonwealth as a whole. More broadly, there was the loss of a central role of the British Empire: the defence of the Empire. That role was no longer militarily or financially feasible, as Britain's withdrawal from Greece in 1947 had painfully demonstrated. Britain itself was now just one part of the NATO military alliance in which the Commonwealth had no role apart from Canada. The ANZUS treaty of 1955 linked Australia, New Zealand, and the United States in a defensive alliance, with Britain and the Commonwealth left out. The second major function of the Empire made London the financial centre of the system. After the Second World War, the British treasury was so weak that it could not operate independently of the United States. The loss of defence and financial roles, furthermore, undermined Joseph Chamberlain's early 20th century vision of a world empire that could combine Imperial preference, mutual defence, and social growth arm. Furthermore, Britain's cosmopolitan role in world affairs became increasingly limited, especially with the losses of India and Singapore.[23] While British elites at first hoped the Commonwealth would preserve and project British influence, they gradually lost their enthusiasm, argues Krishnan Srinivasan. Early enthusiasm waned as British policies came under fire in Commonwealth meetings. Public opinion became troubled as immigration from non-white member states became large-scale.[24]

Republics

On 18 April 1949, Ireland formally became a republic in accordance with the Irish Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Because it did this, it was automatically excluded from the Commonwealth. While Ireland had not actively participated in the Commonwealth since the early 1930s and was content to leave the Commonwealth, other dominions wished to become republics without losing Commonwealth ties. The issue came to a head in April 1949 at a Commonwealth prime ministers' meeting in London. Under the London Declaration, India agreed that, when it became a republic in January 1950, it would accept the British Sovereign as a "symbol of the free association of its independent member nations and as such the Head of the Commonwealth". Upon hearing this, King George VI told the Indian politician Krishna Menon: "So, I've become 'as such'".[25] The other Commonwealth countries recognised India's continuing membership of the association. At Pakistan's insistence, India was not regarded as an exceptional case and it was assumed that other states would be accorded the same treatment as India.[citation needed]

The London Declaration is often seen as marking the beginning of the modern Commonwealth. Following India's precedent, other nations became republics, or constitutional monarchies with their own monarchs, while some countries retained the same monarch as the United Kingdom, but their monarchies developed differently and soon became fully independent of the British monarchy. The monarch is regarded as a separate legal personality in each realm, even though the same person is monarch of each realm.[26][27][28][29]

New Commonwealth

Planners in the interwar period, like Lord Davies, who had also taken "a prominent part in building up the League of Nations Union" in the United Kingdom, in 1932 founded the New Commonwealth Society, of which British section Winston Churchill became the president.[30] This new society was aimed at the creation of an international air force to be the arm of the League of Nations, to allow nations to disarm and safeguard the peace.[citation needed]

The term New Commonwealth has been used in the UK (especially in the 1960s and 1970s) to refer to recently decolonised countries, predominantly non-white and developing. It was often used in debates about immigration from these countries.[31] Britain and the pre-1945 dominions became informally known as the Old Commonwealth, or more pointedly as the white Commonwealth.[32]

Plan G and inviting Europe to join

At a time when Germany and France, together with Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands, were planning for what later became the European Union, and newly independent African countries were joining the Commonwealth, new ideas were floated to prevent Britain from becoming isolated in economic affairs. British trade with the Commonwealth was four times larger than trade with Europe. The British government under Prime Minister Anthony Eden considered in 1956 and 1957 a "plan G" to create a European free trade zone while also protecting the favoured status of the Commonwealth.[33][34][35] Britain also considered inviting Scandinavian and other European countries to join the Commonwealth so it would become a major economic common market. At one point in October 1956 Eden and French Prime Minister Guy Mollet discussed having France join the Commonwealth.[36] Nothing came of any of the proposals.[37]

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Britse Statebond
azərbaycanca: Millətlər Birliyi
Bân-lâm-gú: Kok-ka Cho͘-ha̍p
беларуская: Садружнасць нацый
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Садружнасьць нацыяў
Boarisch: Commonwealth
català: Commonwealth
čeština: Commonwealth
Cymraeg: Y Gymanwlad
dolnoserbski: Commonwealth
euskara: Commonwealth
français: Commonwealth
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Thai-yîn Koet-hia̍p
한국어: 영국 연방
हिन्दी: राष्ट्रकुल
hornjoserbsce: Commonwealth
Bahasa Indonesia: Persemakmuran Bangsa-Bangsa
къарачай-малкъар: Миллетлени биригиую
Lëtzebuergesch: Commonwealth of Nations
lietuvių: Tautų Sandrauga
Lingua Franca Nova: Comunia de Nasiones
Bahasa Melayu: Negara-Negara Komanwel
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Ĭng-lièng-băng
norsk nynorsk: Samveldet
occitan: Commonwealth
português: Commonwealth
ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱲᱤ: ᱠᱚᱢᱚᱱᱚᱭᱮᱞᱛᱷ
Sesotho sa Leboa: Commonwealth of Nations
sicilianu: Commonwealth
Simple English: Commonwealth of Nations
slovenščina: Skupnost narodov
Soomaaliga: Dalalka Kommonwels
српски / srpski: Комонвелт нација
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Komonvelt nacija
svenska: Samväldet
татарча/tatarça: Милләтләр Дуслыгы
Vahcuengh: Yinghlenzbangh
West-Vlams: Gemênebest
吴语: 英联邦
ייִדיש: קאמאנוועלט
粵語: 英聯邦
žemaitėška: Tautū Sandrauga
中文: 英联邦