Common chaffinch

Common chaffinch
Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs).jpg
Male in Hessen, Germany
Fulda Buchfinkweibchen Juni 2012.JPG
Female in Hessen, Germany
Song of male in Surrey, England
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Fringillidae
Subfamily: Fringillinae
Genus: Fringilla
Species: F. coelebs
Binomial name
Fringilla coelebs
Linnaeus, 1758
Rangemap-pinson.PNG
Distribution map
     Summer      Resident      Winter       Introduced
     canariensis      spodiogenys

The common chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs), usually known simply as the chaffinch, is a common and widespread small passerine bird in the finch family. The male is brightly coloured with a blue-grey cap and rust-red underparts. The female is much duller in colouring, but both sexes have two contrasting white wing bars and white sides to the tail. The male bird has a strong voice and sings from exposed perches to attract a mate.

The chaffinch breeds in much of Europe, across Asia to Siberia and in northwest Africa. The female builds a nest with a deep cup in the fork of a tree. The clutch is typically four or five eggs, which hatch in about 13 days. The chicks fledge in around 14 days, but are fed by both adults for several weeks after leaving the nest. Outside the breeding season, chaffinches form flocks in open countryside and forage for seeds on the ground. During the breeding season, they forage on trees for invertebrates, especially caterpillars, and feed these to their young. They are partial migrants; birds breeding in warmer regions are sedentary, while those breeding in the colder northern areas of their range winter further south.

The eggs and nestlings of the chaffinch are taken by a variety of mammalian and avian predators. Its large numbers and huge range mean that chaffinches are classed as of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Taxonomy

The chaffinch was described by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae under its current binomial name. [2] Fringilla is the Latin word for a finch, while caelebs means unmarried or single. Linnaeus remarked that during the Swedish winter, only the female birds migrated south through Belgium to Italy. [2] [3]

The English name comes from the Old English ceaffinc, where ceaf is " chaff" and finc " finch". [4] The chaffinch is one of the many birds depicted in the marginal decoration of the 15th century English illuminated manuscript the Sherborne Missal. [5] [6] The English naturalist William Turner described the chaffinch in his book on birds published in 1544. Although the text is in Latin, Turner gives the English name as chaffinche and lists two folk names: sheld-appel and spink. [7] The word sheld is a dialectal word meaning pied or multicoloured (as in shelduck). [8] Appel may be related to Alp, an obsolete word for a bullfinch. [9] [10] The name spink is probably derived from the bird's call note. The names spink and shell apple are among the many folk names listed for the chaffinch by Reverend Charles Swainson in his Provincial Names and Folk Lore of British Birds (1885). [9]

The Fringillidae are all seed-eaters with stout conical bills. They have similar skull morphologies, nine large primaries, 12 tail feathers and no crop. In all species, the female builds the nest, incubates the eggs, and broods the young. Finches are divided into two subfamilies, the Carduelinae, containing around 28 genera with 141 species and the Fringillinae containing a single genus, Fringilla, with three species: the chaffinch (F. coelebs), the Tenerife blue chaffinch (F. teydea), and the brambling (F. montifringilla). Fringilline finches raise their young almost entirely on arthropods, while the cardueline finches raise their young on regurgitated seeds. [11]

Subspecies

A number of subspecies of the chaffinches have been described based principally on the differences in the pattern and colour of the adult male plumage. Subspecies can be divided into three groups: the "coelebs group" that occurs in Europe and Asia, the "spondiogenys group" in North Africa, and the "canariensis group" on the Canary Islands. [12] The subspecies from Madeira and the Azores are placed either in the "canariensis group" [13] or in the "spondiogenys group". [12] Genetic studies indicate that members of the "coelebs group" and the "spondiogenys group" are more closely related to each other than they are to members of the "canariensis group". [14] [15]

Within the "spondiogenys group", the gradual clinal variation over the large geographic range and the extensive intergradation means that the geographical limits and acceptance of the various subspecies varies between authorities. The International Ornithologists' Union lists 11 subspecies from this group, [16] whereas Peter Clement in the Handbook of Birds of the World lists seven and considers the features of the subspecies balearica ( Mallorca), caucasica (southern Caucasus), schiebeli (southern Greece, Crete and western Turkey), and tyrrhenica ( Corsica) to fall within the variation of the nominate subspecies. He also suggests that the subspecies alexandrovi, sarda, solomkoi, and syriaca may represent variations of the nominate subspecies. [12]

The authors of a 2009 molecular phylogenetic study on the three subspecies that are currently recognised on the Canary Islands concluded that they are sufficiently distinct in both genotype and phenotype to be considered as separate species within the Fringilla genus. They also proposed a revised distribution of subspecies on the islands in which the birds on La Palma (palmae) and El Hierro (ombrioso) are grouped together as a single subspecies while the current canariensis subspecies is split into two with one subspecies occurring only on Gran Canaria and the other on La Gomera and Tenerife. [17]

coelebs group
spondiogenys group
  • F. c. africana J. Levaillant, 1850 – Morocco to northwestern Tunisia, northeastern Libya
  • F. c. spodiogenys Bonaparte, 1841 – Eastern Tunisia and northwestern Libya: Atlas chaffinch
canariensis group
Other Languages
Адыгэбзэ: Румат
Afrikaans: Gryskoppie
Alemannisch: Buchfink
العربية: حسون الظالم
башҡортса: Алағанат турғай
беларуская: Берасцянка
brezhoneg: Pint (evn)
català: Pinsà
Чӑвашла: Пимпĕ
čeština: Pěnkava obecná
corsu: Pincionu
Cymraeg: Ji-binc
dansk: Bogfinke
davvisámegiella: Beibboš
Deutsch: Buchfink
eesti: Metsvint
Ελληνικά: Κοινός σπίνος
Esperanto: Fringo
euskara: Txonta arrunt
føroyskt: Bókígða
Gaeilge: Rí rua
Gàidhlig: Breacan-beithe
Հայերեն: Ամուրիկ
interlingua: Fringilla coelebs
íslenska: Bókfinka
עברית: פרוש מצוי
ქართული: ნიბლია
kaszëbsczi: Wiszónk
қазақша: Жаурауық
Kurdî: Befrîk
кырык мары: Пимба
latviešu: Žubīte
Lëtzebuergesch: Poufank
lietuvių: Kikilis
Limburgs: Bookvink
Livvinkarjala: Peiboi
magyar: Erdei pinty
македонски: Обична ѕвингалка
Nederlands: Vink (vogel)
नेपाली: चित्रकचरी
Napulitano: Frungillo
Nordfriisk: Bokfink
norsk: Bokfink
norsk nynorsk: Bokfink
Picard: Pinchon
Piemontèis: Fringilla coelebs
português: Fringilla coelebs
română: Cinteză
русиньскый: Зяблик
русский: Зяблик
саха тыла: Эриэн кынат
Scots: Shilfie
slovenčina: Pinka obyčajná
српски / srpski: Зеба
suomi: Peippo
svenska: Bofink
українська: Зяблик
vèneto: Finco
Tiếng Việt: Sẻ khướu
West-Vlams: Vienke
中文: 苍头燕雀