Republic of Colombia

República de Colombia (Spanish)
Motto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish)
"Freedom and Order"
Anthem: Himno Nacional de la República de Colombia  (Spanish)
(English: "National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia")
Location of Colombia (dark green) in South America (grey)
Location of Colombia (dark green)

in South America (grey)

Location of Colombia
and largest city
4°35′N 74°4′W / 4°35′N 74°4′W / 4.583; -74.067
Official languagesSpanish
English is also official in the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina.
Recognized regional languages68[a]
Ethnic groups
(2018 Census[1])
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Iván Duque Márquez
Marta Lucía Ramírez
Ernesto Macías
José Luis Barceló
Chamber of Representatives
Independence from Spain
• Declared
20 July 1810
• Recognized
7 August 1819
• Last unitarisation
4 July 1991
• Total
1,141,748 km2 (440,831 sq mi) (25th)
• Water (%)
8.8 (17th)
• July 2019 estimate
Increase48,258,494[2] (29th)
• Density
42.23/km2 (109.4/sq mi) (173rd)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$791.995 billion[3] (31st)
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$355.163 billion[3] (38th)
• Per capita
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 49.7[4]
HDI (2018)Increase 0.761[5]
high · 79th
CurrencyPeso (COP)
Time zoneUTC−5[b] (COT)
Date formatdd−mm−yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+57
ISO 3166 codeCO
  1. ^ Although the Colombian Constitution specifies Spanish (Castellano) as the official language in all Colombian territory, other languages spoken in the country by ethnic groups – approximately 68 languages – each is also official in its own territory.[6] English is also official in the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina.[7]
  2. ^ The official Colombian time[8] is controlled and coordinated by the National Institute of Metrology.[9]

Colombia (ə/ (About this soundlisten) LUM-bee-ə, m-/ -⁠LOM-;[10] Spanish: [koˈlombja] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: About this soundRepública de Colombia ),[Note 1] is a country largely situated in the north of South America, with land and territories in North America. Colombia is bounded on the north by the Caribbean Sea, the northwest by Panama, the south by both Ecuador and Peru, the east by Venezuela, the southeast by Brazil, and the west by the Pacific. It comprises thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogotá.

Colombia is ethnically and linguistically diverse, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by various Amerindian civilizations, European settlement, forced African labor, and immigration from Europe and the greater Middle East. Urban centres are concentrated in the Andean highlands and the Caribbean coast.

Colombia has been inhabited by various American Indian peoples since at least 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and the Tairona. Spaniards arrived in 1499 and by the mid-16th century annexed part of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada. The new sovereign state experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903, leading to Colombia's present borders. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security, stability, and rule of law.[11]

Colombia has the second-highest biodiversity in the world[12] and is one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries; its territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, highlands, grasslands, deserts, and islands and coastlines along both the Atlantic and Pacific (the only country in South America).

Colombia is the only NATO Global Partner in Latin America.[13] It is part of the CIVETS group of leading emerging markets and a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, an associate member of Mercosur and other international organizations.[14] Colombia's diversified economy is the third largest in South America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects.[15][16]


The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of the navigator Christopher Columbus (Italian: Cristoforo Colombo, Spanish: Cristóbal Colón). It was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish law (by then from the Mississippi River to Patagonia). The name was later adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern-day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador, and northwest Brazil).[17]

When Venezuela, Ecuador, and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada officially changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before finally adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886.[17]

To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia.

Other Languages
Acèh: Kolombia
адыгабзэ: Коломбие
Afrikaans: Colombia
Akan: Colombia
Alemannisch: Kolumbien
አማርኛ: ኮሎምቢያ
Ænglisc: Colombia
Аҧсшәа: Колумбиа
العربية: كولومبيا
aragonés: Colombia
ܐܪܡܝܐ: ܩܘܠܘܡܒܝܐ
arpetan: Colombie
asturianu: Colombia
Avañe'ẽ: Kolómbia
Aymar aru: Kuluwya
azərbaycanca: Kolumbiya
تۆرکجه: کولومبیا
Banjar: Kolombia
Bân-lâm-gú: Colombia
башҡортса: Колумбия
беларуская: Калумбія
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Калюмбія
भोजपुरी: कोलंबिया
Bikol Central: Kolombya
Bislama: Colombia
български: Колумбия
Boarisch: Kolumbien
bosanski: Kolumbija
brezhoneg: Kolombia
буряад: Колумби
català: Colòmbia
Чӑвашла: Колумби
Cebuano: Colombia
čeština: Kolumbie
Chamoru: Colombia
Chavacano de Zamboanga: Colombia
chiShona: Colombia
corsu: Colombia
Cymraeg: Colombia
dansk: Colombia
davvisámegiella: Colombia
Deitsch: Kolumbien
Deutsch: Kolumbien
ދިވެހިބަސް: ކޮލަންބިއާ
dolnoserbski: Kolumbiska
डोटेली: कोलम्बिया
eesti: Colombia
Ελληνικά: Κολομβία
emiliàn e rumagnòl: Colombia
español: Colombia
Esperanto: Kolombio
estremeñu: Colómbia
euskara: Kolonbia
eʋegbe: Colombia
فارسی: کلمبیا
Fiji Hindi: Colombia
føroyskt: Kolumbia
français: Colombie
Frysk: Kolombia
furlan: Colombie
Gaeilge: An Cholóim
Gagauz: Kolumbiya
Gàidhlig: Coloimbia
galego: Colombia
贛語: 哥倫比亞
Gĩkũyũ: Colombia
ગુજરાતી: કોલમ્બિયા
𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃𐌺: 𐌺𐌰𐌿𐌻𐌿𐌼𐌱𐌾𐌰
गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni: कोलंबिया
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Colombia
한국어: 콜롬비아
Hausa: Kolombiya
Hawaiʻi: Kolomupia
հայերեն: Կոլումբիա
हिन्दी: कोलम्बिया
hornjoserbsce: Kolumbiska
hrvatski: Kolumbija
Igbo: Colombia
Ilokano: Colombia
বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী: কলম্বিয়া
Bahasa Indonesia: Kolombia
interlingua: Colombia
Interlingue: Columbia
Ирон: Колумби
isiXhosa: IsiColombia
isiZulu: IKolombiya
íslenska: Kólumbía
italiano: Colombia
עברית: קולומביה
Jawa: Kolombia
Kabɩyɛ: Kolombi
kalaallisut: Colombia
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೊಲೊಂಬಿಯ
Kapampangan: Colombia
ქართული: კოლუმბია
қазақша: Колумбия
kernowek: Kolombi
Kinyarwanda: Kolombiya
Kiswahili: Kolombia
Kongo: Kolombia
Kreyòl ayisyen: Kolonbi
kurdî: Kolombiya
Кыргызча: Колумбия
кырык мары: Колумби
Ladino: Kolombia
лакку: Колумбия
لۊری شومالی: کولومبیا
latgaļu: Kolumbeja
Latina: Columbia
latviešu: Kolumbija
Lëtzebuergesch: Kolumbien
лезги: Колумбия
lietuvių: Kolumbija
Ligure: Colombia
Limburgs: Colombia
lingála: Kolombi
Lingua Franca Nova: Colombia
Livvinkarjala: Kolumbii
la .lojban.: kolombias
lumbaart: Culumbia
magyar: Kolumbia
македонски: Колумбија
Malagasy: Kolombia
മലയാളം: കൊളംബിയ
Malti: Kolombja
Māori: Koromōpia
मराठी: कोलंबिया
მარგალური: კოლუმბია
مازِرونی: کلمبیا
Bahasa Melayu: Colombia
Minangkabau: Kolombia
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Colombia
Mirandés: Colómbia
монгол: Колумби
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကိုလံဘီယာနိုင်ငံ
Nāhuatl: Colombia
Dorerin Naoero: Korombiya
Na Vosa Vakaviti: Colombia
Nederlands: Colombia
नेपाली: कोलम्बिया
नेपाल भाषा: कोलोम्बिया
日本語: コロンビア
Napulitano: Colombia
нохчийн: Колумби
Nordfriisk: Kolumbien
Norfuk / Pitkern: Kolombiya
norsk: Colombia
norsk nynorsk: Colombia
Nouormand: Coloumbie
Novial: Kolombia
occitan: Colómbia
олык марий: Колумбий
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: କଲମ୍ବିଆ
Oromoo: Kolombiyaa
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kolumbiya
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੋਲੰਬੀਆ
Pangasinan: Colombia
پنجابی: کولمبیا
Papiamentu: Colombia
Patois: Kolombia
ភាសាខ្មែរ: កូឡុំប៊ី
Picard: Colombie
Piemontèis: Colombia
Tok Pisin: Kolambia
Plattdüütsch: Kolumbien
polski: Kolumbia
português: Colômbia
Qaraqalpaqsha: Kolumbiya
qırımtatarca: Kolombiya
reo tahiti: Colombia
română: Columbia
romani čhib: Kolombiya
rumantsch: Columbia
Runa Simi: Kulumbya
русиньскый: Колумбия
русский: Колумбия
саха тыла: Колумбия
Gagana Samoa: Kolomupia
संस्कृतम्: कोलोम्बिया
sardu: Colòmbia
Scots: Colombie
Seeltersk: Kolumbien
Sesotho sa Leboa: Kolombia
Setswana: Colombia
shqip: Kolumbia
sicilianu: Colombia
Simple English: Colombia
سنڌي: ڪولمبيا
slovenčina: Kolumbia
slovenščina: Kolumbija
ślůnski: Kolůmbijo
Soomaaliga: Kolombiya
کوردی: کۆلۆمبیا
Sranantongo: Kolombikondre
српски / srpski: Колумбија
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kolumbija
Sunda: Kolombia
suomi: Kolumbia
svenska: Colombia
Tagalog: Colombia
Taqbaylit: Kulumbya
татарча/tatarça: Колумбия
తెలుగు: కొలంబియా
tetun: Kolómbia
тоҷикӣ: Кулумбия
lea faka-Tonga: Kolomipia
Türkçe: Kolombiya
Türkmençe: Kolumbiýa
Thuɔŋjäŋ: Colombia
удмурт: Колумбия
українська: Колумбія
اردو: کولمبیا
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: كولومبىيە
Vahcuengh: Colombia
vèneto: Cołonbia
vepsän kel’: Kolumbii
Tiếng Việt: Colombia
Volapük: Kolumbän
Võro: Colombia
walon: Colombeye
文言: 哥倫比亞
West-Vlams: Colombia
Winaray: Colombia
Wolof: Koloombi
吴语: 哥伦比亚
Xitsonga: Colombia
ייִדיש: קאלאמביע
Yorùbá: Kòlómbìà
粵語: 哥倫比亞
Zazaki: Kolombiya
Zeêuws: Colombia
žemaitėška: Kuolombėjė
中文: 哥伦比亚
kriyòl gwiyannen: Lakolonbi
Sakizaya: Columbia