The Cold War (1947–1991)
The fall of the Berlin Wall, 1989
Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension between the with its Soviet Union (the satellite states ), and the Eastern Bloc with its allies (the United States ) after Western Bloc . A common World War II of the conflict begins with 1946, the year U.S. diplomat historiography 's " George F. Kennan " from Long Telegram cemented a Moscow of U.S. foreign policy of Soviet containment threatening strategically vital regions, and ending between the expansionism and the 1991 Revolutions of 1989 , which ended collapse of the USSR in communism . The term "cold" is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two sides, but they each supported major regional wars known as Eastern Europe . proxy wars
The Cold War split the temporary
against wartime alliance , leaving the Soviet Union and the United States as two Nazi Germany with profound economic and political differences. The USSR was a superpowers state led by its Marxist–Leninist , which in turn was dominated by a Communist Party with different titles over time, and a small committee called the leader . The Party controlled the state, the press, the military, the economy and many organizations throughout the Politburo , including the Second World and other satellites, and funded Communist parties around the world, sometimes in competition with Communist Warsaw Pact , particularly following the China of the 1960s. In opposition stood the Sino-Soviet split West, led by the United States, a capitalist with a federal republic two-party . The presidential system nations of the Western Bloc were generally First World with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of liberal democratic and other authoritarian regimes throughout the banana republics , most of which were the Western Bloc's Third World . former colonies  Some major Cold War frontlines such as  , Vietnam , and the Indonesia were still Western colonies in 1947. Congo
A neutral bloc arose with the
, which sought good relations with both sides. The two superpowers never engaged directly in full-scale armed combat, but they were heavily armed in preparation for a possible all-out Non-Aligned Movement . Each side had a nuclear world war that discouraged an nuclear strategy by the other side, on the basis that such an attack would attack —the doctrine of lead to the total destruction of the attacker (MAD). Aside from the mutually assured destruction , and their deployment of conventional military forces, the struggle for dominance was expressed via proxy wars around the globe, development of the two sides’ nuclear arsenals , massive propaganda campaigns and psychological warfare , far-reaching espionage , rivalry at sports events, and technological competitions such as the embargos . Space Race of the Cold War began in the first two years after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc, while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe (for example, supporting the anti-communist side in the The first phase ) and Greek Civil War the creating . The NATO alliance (1948–49) was the first major crisis of the Cold War. With the victory of the Berlin Blockade in the Communist side and the outbreak of the Chinese Civil War (1950–53), Korean War . The USSR and the USA competed for influence in the conflict expanded and the Latin America states of decolonizing and Africa . The Soviets suppressed the Asia . The expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 (1956), the Suez Crisis , and the Berlin Crisis of 1961 of 1962, which was perhaps the closest the two sides came to Cuban Missile Crisis . Meanwhile, an international nuclear war took root and grew among citizens around the world, first in Japan from 1954, when people became concerned about peace movement , but soon also in Europe and the US. The peace movement, and in particular the nuclear weapons testing , gained pace and popularity from the late 1950s and early 1960s, and continued to grow through the '70s and '80s with large protest marches, demonstrations and various non-parliamentary activism opposing war and calling for global anti-nuclear movement . Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, nuclear disarmament that saw the a new phase began complicate relations within the Communist sphere, while US allies, particularly Sino-Soviet split , demonstrated greater independence of action. The USSR France the 1968 crushed liberalization program in Prague Spring , while the US experienced internal turmoil from the Czechoslovakia and Civil Rights movement to the opposition (1955–75), which ended with the Vietnam War of the US-backed defeat , prompting further adjustments. Republic of Vietnam
By the 1970s, both sides had become interested in making allowances in order to create a more stable and predictable international system, ushering in a period of
that saw détente and the US Strategic Arms Limitation Talks with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the Soviet Union. Détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the opening relations in 1979. The Soviet–Afghan War were another period of elevated tension, with the Soviet downing of early 1980s and the KAL Flight 007 , both in 1983. The United States increased "Able Archer" NATO military exercises on the Soviet Union, at a time when the communist state was already suffering from diplomatic, military, and economic pressures . On 12 June 1982, a million protesters gathered in economic stagnation , Central Park to call for an end to the Cold War arms race and nuclear weapons in particular. New York , the new Soviet leader In the mid-1980s introduced the liberalizing reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev ("reorganization", 1987) and perestroika ("openness", c. 1985) and ended Soviet involvement in Afghanistan. Pressures for national independence grew stronger in glasnost , especially Eastern Europe . Gorbachev meanwhile refused to use Soviet troops to bolster the faltering Poland regimes as had occurred in the past. The result in 1989 was Warsaw Pact that peacefully (with the exception of the a wave of revolutions ) overthrew all of the communist regimes of Central and Eastern Europe. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union itself lost control and was banned following an Romanian Revolution in August 1991. This in turn led to the abortive coup attempt in December 1991 and the collapse of communist regimes in other countries such as formal dissolution of the USSR , Mongolia and Cambodia . The United States remained as the world's only superpower. South Yemen
The Cold War and its events have left a significant legacy. It is often referred to in
, especially in media featuring themes of popular culture (notably the internationally successful espionage book and film franchise) and the threat of nuclear warfare. Meanwhile, a renewed state of tension between the Soviet Union's successor state, James Bond , and the United States in the 2010s (including its Western allies) has been referred to as the Russia . Second Cold War 
Origins of the term
At the end of World War II, English writer
used George Orwell , as a general term, in his essay "You and the Atomic Bomb", published 19 October 1945 in the British newspaper cold war . Contemplating a world living in the shadow of the threat of Tribune , Orwell looked at nuclear warfare 's predictions of a polarized world, writing:
Looking at the world as a whole, the drift for many decades has been not towards anarchy but towards the reimposition of slavery... James Burnham's theory has been much discussed, but few people have yet considered its ideological implications—that is, the kind of world-view, the kind of beliefs, and the social structure that would probably prevail in a state which was at once unconquerable and in a permanent state of "cold war" with its neighbours.
The Observer of 10 March 1946, Orwell wrote, "after the Moscow conference last December, Russia began to make a 'cold war' on Britain and the British Empire."
The first use of the term to describe the specific post-war geopolitical confrontation between the USSR and the United States came in a speech by
, an influential advisor to Democratic presidents, Bernard Baruch on 16 April 1947. The speech, written by journalist  , Herbert Bayard Swope proclaimed, "Let us not be deceived: we are today in the midst of a cold war."  Newspaper columnist  gave the term wide currency with his book Walter Lippmann The Cold War. When asked in 1947 about the source of the term, Lippmann traced it to a French term from the 1930s, la guerre froide.