Cobalt

Cobalt,  27Co
cobalt chips
Cobalt
Pronunciationt/ (About this soundlisten)[1]
Appearancehard lustrous bluish gray metal
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Co)58.933194(3)[2]
Cobalt in the periodic table
HydrogenHelium
LithiumBerylliumBoronCarbonNitrogenOxygenFluorineNeon
SodiumMagnesiumAluminiumSiliconPhosphorusSulfurChlorineArgon
PotassiumCalciumScandiumTitaniumVanadiumChromiumManganeseIronCobaltNickelCopperZincGalliumGermaniumArsenicSeleniumBromineKrypton
RubidiumStrontiumYttriumZirconiumNiobiumMolybdenumTechnetiumRutheniumRhodiumPalladiumSilverCadmiumIndiumTinAntimonyTelluriumIodineXenon
CaesiumBariumLanthanumCeriumPraseodymiumNeodymiumPromethiumSamariumEuropiumGadoliniumTerbiumDysprosiumHolmiumErbiumThuliumYtterbiumLutetiumHafniumTantalumTungstenRheniumOsmiumIridiumPlatinumGoldMercury (element)ThalliumLeadBismuthPoloniumAstatineRadon
FranciumRadiumActiniumThoriumProtactiniumUraniumNeptuniumPlutoniumAmericiumCuriumBerkeliumCaliforniumEinsteiniumFermiumMendeleviumNobeliumLawrenciumRutherfordiumDubniumSeaborgiumBohriumHassiumMeitneriumDarmstadtiumRoentgeniumCoperniciumNihoniumFleroviumMoscoviumLivermoriumTennessineOganesson


Co

Rh
ironcobaltnickel
Atomic number (Z)27
Groupgroup 9
Periodperiod 4
Blockd-block
Element category  Transition metal
Electron configuration[Ar] 3d7 4s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 15, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point1768 K ​(1495 °C, ​2723 °F)
Boiling point3200 K ​(2927 °C, ​5301 °F)
Density (near r.t.)8.90 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)8.86 g/cm3
Heat of fusion16.06 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization377 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.81 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa)1101001 k10 k100 k
at T (K)179019602165242327553198
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−3, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5[3] (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.88
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 760.4 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1648 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3232 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 125 pm
Covalent radiusLow spin: 126±3 pm
High spin: 150±7 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of cobalt
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for cobalt
Speed of sound thin rod4720 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion13.0 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity100 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity62.4 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingferromagnetic
Young's modulus209 GPa
Shear modulus75 GPa
Bulk modulus180 GPa
Poisson ratio0.31
Mohs hardness5.0
Vickers hardness1043 MPa
Brinell hardness470–3000 MPa
CAS Number7440-48-4
History
Discovery and first isolationGeorg Brandt (1735)
Main isotopes of cobalt
Iso­topeAbun­danceHalf-life (t1/2)Decay modePro­duct
56Cosyn77.27 dε56Fe
57Cosyn271.79 dε57Fe
58Cosyn70.86 dε58Fe
59Co100%stable
60Cosyn5.2714 yβ, γ60Ni
| references

Cobalt is a chemical element with the symbol Co and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt is found in the Earth's crust only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal.

Cobalt-based blue pigments (cobalt blue) have been used since ancient times for jewelry and paints, and to impart a distinctive blue tint to glass, but the color was later thought to be due to the known metal bismuth. Miners had long used the name kobold ore (German for goblin ore) for some of the blue-pigment producing minerals; they were so named because they were poor in known metals, and gave poisonous arsenic-containing fumes when smelted. In 1735, such ores were found to be reducible to a new metal (the first discovered since ancient times), and this was ultimately named for the kobold.

Today, some cobalt is produced specifically from one of a number of metallic-lustered ores, such as cobaltite (CoAsS). The element is however more usually produced as a by-product of copper and nickel mining. The copper belt in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Zambia yields most of the global cobalt production. World production in 2016 was 116,000 tonnes (according to Natural Resources Canada), and the DRC alone accounted for more than 50%.[4]

Cobalt is primarily used in lithium-ion batteries, and in the manufacture of magnetic, wear-resistant and high-strength alloys. The compounds cobalt silicate and cobalt(II) aluminate (CoAl2O4, cobalt blue) give a distinctive deep blue color to glass, ceramics, inks, paints and varnishes. Cobalt occurs naturally as only one stable isotope, cobalt-59. Cobalt-60 is a commercially important radioisotope, used as a radioactive tracer and for the production of high energy gamma rays.

Cobalt is the active center of a group of coenzymes called cobalamins. Vitamin B12, the best-known example of the type, is an essential vitamin for all animals. Cobalt in inorganic form is also a micronutrient for bacteria, algae, and fungi.

Characteristics

a sample of pure cobolt
A block of electrolytically refined cobalt (99.9% purity) cut from a large plate

Cobalt is a ferromagnetic metal with a specific gravity of 8.9. The Curie temperature is 1,115 °C (2,039 °F)[5] and the magnetic moment is 1.6–1.7 Bohr magnetons per atom.[6] Cobalt has a relative permeability two-thirds that of iron.[7] Metallic cobalt occurs as two crystallographic structures: hcp and fcc. The ideal transition temperature between the hcp and fcc structures is 450 °C (842 °F), but in practice the energy difference between them is so small that random intergrowth of the two is common.[8][9][10]

Cobalt is a weakly reducing metal that is protected from oxidation by a passivating oxide film. It is attacked by halogens and sulfur. Heating in oxygen produces Co3O4 which loses oxygen at 900 °C (1,650 °F) to give the monoxide CoO.[11] The metal reacts with fluorine (F2) at 520 K to give CoF3; with chlorine (Cl2), bromine (Br2) and iodine (I2), producing equivalent binary halides. It does not react with hydrogen gas (H2) or nitrogen gas (N2) even when heated, but it does react with boron, carbon, phosphorus, arsenic and sulfur.[12] At ordinary temperatures, it reacts slowly with mineral acids, and very slowly with moist, but not with dry, air.

Other Languages
Afrikaans: Kobalt
አማርኛ: ኮባልት
العربية: كوبالت
aragonés: Cobol
armãneashti: Cobaltu
asturianu: Cobaltu
azərbaycanca: Kobalt
تۆرکجه: کوبالت
বাংলা: কোবাল্ট
Bân-lâm-gú: Cobalt
беларуская: Кобальт
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Кобальт
भोजपुरी: कोबाल्ट
български: Кобалт
བོད་ཡིག: གོ་བྰལ་
bosanski: Kobalt
brezhoneg: Kobalt
català: Cobalt
Чӑвашла: Кобальт
Cebuano: Kobalto
čeština: Kobalt
corsu: Cobaltu
Cymraeg: Cobalt
dansk: Kobolt
Deutsch: Cobalt
ދިވެހިބަސް: ކޮބާލްޓް
Diné bizaad: Béésh łibáhí
eesti: Koobalt
Ελληνικά: Κοβάλτιο
эрзянь: Кобальт
español: Cobalto
Esperanto: Kobalto
euskara: Kobalto
فارسی: کبالت
Fiji Hindi: Cobalt
français: Cobalt
furlan: Cobalt
Gaeilge: Cóbalt
Gaelg: Cobalt
Gàidhlig: Còbalt
galego: Cobalto
ગુજરાતી: કોબાલ્ટ
客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî: Cobalt
хальмг: Кобалтион
한국어: 코발트
հայերեն: Կոբալտ
Արեւմտահայերէն: Կոբաղդ
हिन्दी: कोबाल्ट
hrvatski: Kobalt
Ido: Kobalto
Bahasa Indonesia: Kobalt
interlingua: Cobalt
íslenska: Kóbolt
italiano: Cobalto
עברית: קובלט
Jawa: Kobalt
Kabɩyɛ: Kobalti
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕೋಬಾಲ್ಟ್
ქართული: კობალტი
қазақша: Кобальт
Kiswahili: Kobalti
коми: Кобальт
kurdî: Kobalt
Кыргызча: Кобальт
кырык мары: Кобальт
Latina: Cobaltum
latviešu: Kobalts
Lëtzebuergesch: Kobalt
lietuvių: Kobaltas
Ligure: Cobalto
Limburgs: Kobalt
Livvinkarjala: Kobal’tu
la .lojban.: ridjinme
lumbaart: Cobalto
magyar: Kobalt
македонски: Кобалт
മലയാളം: കൊബാൾട്ട്
मराठी: कोबाल्ट
Bahasa Melayu: Kobalt
Mìng-dĕ̤ng-ngṳ̄: Gū (gĭng-sṳ̆k)
монгол: Кобальт
မြန်မာဘာသာ: ကိုဘော့ (ဒြပ်စင်)
Nederlands: Kobalt
नेपाली: कोबाल्ट
नेपाल भाषा: कोबाल्ट
日本語: コバルト
Nordfriisk: Koobalt
norsk: Kobolt
norsk nynorsk: Kobolt
occitan: Cobalt
ଓଡ଼ିଆ: କୋବାଲ୍‌ଟ
oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча: Kobalt
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਕੋਬਾਲਟ
पालि: कोबाल्ट
پنجابی: کوبالٹ
Piemontèis: Cobalt
Plattdüütsch: Kobalt
polski: Kobalt
português: Cobalto
română: Cobalt
Runa Simi: Kubaltu
русский: Кобальт
संस्कृतम्: कोबाल्ट
Scots: Cobaut
Seeltersk: Cobalt
shqip: Kobalti
sicilianu: Cobbaltu
සිංහල: කොබෝල්ට්
Simple English: Cobalt
slovenčina: Kobalt
slovenščina: Kobalt
Soomaaliga: Kobalti
کوردی: کۆبالت
српски / srpski: Кобалт
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Kobalt
Sunda: Kobalt
suomi: Koboltti
svenska: Kobolt
Tagalog: Kobalto
татарча/tatarça: Кобальт
తెలుగు: కోబాల్ట్
тоҷикӣ: Кобалт
Türkçe: Kobalt
українська: Кобальт
اردو: کوبالٹ
ئۇيغۇرچە / Uyghurche: كوبالت
vepsän kel’: Kobal't (himine element)
Tiếng Việt: Coban
walon: Cobalt
文言:
Winaray: Cobalto
吴语:
ייִדיש: קאבאלט
Yorùbá: Cobalt
粵語:
中文: