The Byzantine double cross on great Moravian rings
The coat of arms of Slovakia consists of a red (gules) shield, in early Gothic style, charged with a silver (argent) double cross standing on the middle peak of a dark blue mountain consisting of three peaks. Extremities of the cross are amplified, and its ends are concaved. The double cross is a symbol of its Christian faith and the hills represent three symbolic mountain ranges: Tatra, Fatra (made up of the Veľká Fatra and Malá Fatra ranges), and Mátra (the last one is in northern Hungary).
In 1990, the Slovak Interior Ministry tasked Ladislav Čisárik, a painter and heraldic artist, and
Ladislav Vrtel, an expert in heraldry, with creating a new coat of arms and national flag in the aftermath of the Velvet Revolution. Čisárik and Vrtel based their designs for a modern coat of arms and flag on an existing 14th Century coat of arms. However, Čisárik and Vrtel chose to enlarge the double cross three times to emphasize it as a national symbol. In addition to the national coat of arms and the national flag, the duo also designed a new presidential standard, which incorporates the double cross as well.